Border securitization is a relatively new topic within the criminology field. It is only within the past twenty years that criminologists have begun to examine this issue and in the past decade has seen increasing scholarship within the discipline. This was evidenced by a panel dedicated to borders, a roundtable discussion on a book about policing non-citizens, and a poster and paper presentation on border deaths. BOb’s Professor Sharon Pickering, Dr. Leanne Weber, Dr. Marie Segrave, and post-graduate student Brandy Cochrane stood center stage of these issues at the Australia New Zealand Society of Criminology Conference (ANZSOC) in Brisbane last week.
During the panel, entitled Comparative Border Control, Professor Sharon Pickering led by discussing her qualitative work with migrant women and border patrol agents in Greece, Italy, and Australia. She described how these countries lie on different points of a continuum in regards to balancing humanitarian efforts and securitization. She argued the problems of borders cannot be solved on a big grey boat in the middle of the ocean, but need to be resolved away from this geographical boundary.
Labor and non-citizens within the Australian context were the focus of Dr. Marie Segrave’s talk. The Australian context for these non-citizens is not on work exploitation and conditions which can emerge, but on removal of these workers through tactics by the immigration department working with various partnerships. She argued those who were charged with protection of workers are the same people charged to meeting targets of detection and deportation.
Deportation was at the focal point of Dr. Leanne Weber’s contribution to the panel. Looking at over 10 countries throughout the world, her results suggested Norway and the Netherlands have the highest deportation rates when compared with percentage of immigrant populations. She argued for further examination of deportation and detention trends. Dr. Rebecca Wickes from University of Queensland chaired the panel whose work in various criminological topics helped to guide the panel.
Arguing the internal border has not has not had the same attention as the external border, Professor Weber’s “Policing Non-Citizens” was featured in the next day’s roundtable and meet-the-author session. How non-citizens are detected and enforced upon is the question this book attempts to answer. Several prominent discussants, including Professor Richard Sarre, Professor Willem De Lint, and Professor Lorraine Mazerolle, conversed on the book and invited comment from Professor Weber.
BORDER DEATHS MAPPING
Using BOb’s Australian Border Deaths Database and an EU equivalent from United Against Racism, to look at areas of origin and deaths at the borders of those attempting to make the perilous journey, PhD Candidate Brandy Cochrane, presented both a poster and paper at the ANZSOC Conference, on her findings entitled Drowning In It: Regions, Refugees, and Deaths in the Borderlands. She found those from certain areas were more likely to die in the borderlands than others, and argued this could be attributed to border hardening tactics applied by states against these areas.