Style conventions

APA referencing is requested (although exceptions may be possible on consultation) according to the guidelines/models available here:

Please submit in Word.doc format according to the style requirements listed below. Other general guidelines as follows. Please see detailed models of the required format style here: [WORD DOC: 86 K] [PDF: 390 K]

Please also refer to  IJIS 2 for guidance.

1. All articles must be submitted in MS Word format. Please try to use outside justified page headers. . IJIS currently uses the Windows Operating System.

2. Please begin the paper with an abstract (100-400 words) summarising the content of the article and indicate the abstract with the heading ABSTRACT. Other essential headings include: INTRODUCTION, CONCLUSION (not Conclusions; Discussion; or Concluding Remarks); REFERENCES and any other headings you find necessary within the paper to reflect the important subsections or divisions.

3. Figures should be placed inside the manuscript at the relevant point of discussion. If previously published figures are used, written permission from the copyright holder(s) must be submitted along with the text. This information should also indicate the copyright holder’s citation instructions.

4. All diagrams, photographs, illustrations and charts (not tables) are to be referred to in the text as Figures and should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals. These figures must be supplied as separate electronic files named in the format in which they were created and must be in one of the following formats: tiff, bitmap, jpeg, gif, ppt, psd, png or eps. The required resolution of these figures must be 350-750 dpi. The higher the resolution, the clearer the printed image.

5. Please keep vertical (portrait) tables a maximum of 5.5 inches/14 cm wide if possible. If width is a problem, use the landscape layout with section breaks on both sides if MS Word is being used.

6. A word count would be appreciated at the end of the text.

7. Either American or British spelling is acceptable. International, American and British punctuation are all acceptable.

8. Please consider for purposes of presentation that the word ‘research’ and ‘evidence’ are collective nouns, thus ‘research/evidence shows/presents’ or ‘research/evidence has shown, is presented’ (do not use researches; or evidences). Within this context, please keep in mind that the word ‘data’ is plural, i.e. data are…

9. Receipt of your manuscript will be confirmed via email.

10. All Copyright remains with the author/s.


(Check this link for the more complete guide:

 Different authors : same surname

Rule Add the initials of the author’s first or given name/s to their surname to distinguish them.
Citation examples P. R. Smith (1923) to distinguish from S. Smith (1945) … (S. A. Brown & Jones, 1961) to distinguish from (W. O. Brown & Smith, 1985).

Multiple authors: ambiguous citations

Rule If a multiple (3+) author citation abbreviated with et al. looks the same as another in text citation similarly shortened, add enough surnames to make a distinction, followed by a comma and et al.
Citation examples … (Brown, Shimamura, et al., 1998) to distinguish from (Brown, Taylor, et al., 1998).

Multiple works: by same author

Rule When cited together give the author’s surname once followed by the years of each publication, which are separated by a comma.
Citation examples … (Stairs, 1992, 1993). Stairs (1992, 1993)…

Multiple works: by same author AND same year

Rule If there is more than one reference by an author in the same year,suffixes (a, b, c, etc.) are added to the year. Allocation of the suffixes is determined by the order of the references in the reference list. Suffixes are also included in the reference list, and these references are listed alphabetically by title. If cited together, list by suffix as shown below.
Citation examples Stairs (1992b)… later in the text … (Stairs, 1992a). …(Stairs, 1992a, 1992b).

If the author is identified as ‘anonymous’

Rule Use Anonymous in place of the author’s surname.
Citation examples … (Anonymous, 1997)

Unknown author

Rule Give the first few words of the title. If the title is from an article or a chapter use double quotation marks. If the title is from a periodical, book brochure or report then use italics.
Citation examples …the worst election loss in the party’s history (“This is the end,” 1968).

Corporate or group of authors

Rule If organization is recognized by abbreviation, cite the first time as follows:
Citation examples … (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare [AIHW], 2005) thereafter … (AIHW, 2005). If abbreviation not widely known, give the name in full every time: … (Australian Research Council, 1996)

Multiple references

Rule List the citations in alphabetical order and separate with semicolons
Citation examples … (Burst, 1995; Nguyen, 1976; Turner & Hooch, 1982).

Citing specific parts of a source

Rule For a direct quote the page number(s) must be given. Indicate page, chapter, figure, table, etc. as specifically as possible. Use accepted abbreviations, i.e. p. for page, para. for paragraph..
Citation examples As one writer put it “the darkest days were still ahead” (Weston, 1988, p. 45). Weston (1988) argued that “the darkest days were still ahead” (p. 45). This theory was put forward by Smith (2005, chap.7)

Quote from an electronic source

Rule Where page numbers are not provided use paragraph numbers.
Citation examples   …(Chang, 2001, para. 2)

Personal communication: for email and other ‘unrecoverable’ data

Rule Personal communications are not included in the reference list.
Citation examples … (R. Smith, personal communication, January 28, 2002). R. Smith (personal communication, January 28, 2002)…

Citation of a secondary source: (i.e a source referred to in another publication)

Rule In the reference list you ONLY include the details of the source you actually read – not the original source. In the example below, the original source would be Farrow (1968), which you saw cited in a paper by Ward and Decan (1988).
Citation  examples … (Farrow, 1968, as cited in Ward & Decan, 1988). Farrow (1968, as cited in Ward & Decan, 1988) … Ward and Decan (1988) cited Farrow (1968) as finding…