Secondary sources

These listings  cover a wide variety of published sources, focussing on material relevant to Australia. 
They are organised by subject. We intend soon to make them searchable by title and author. 

Adoption Experiences: Personal Narratives

Abbott, D. 2002. Is a Child Within my Reach: One Woman’s Very Personal Biography and Soul Wrenching Search to Become a Mother. Warnbro, WA: Debby Abbott.

Association of Relinquishing Mothers, 1996. Alternatives to Adoption: Information for Parents Considering Adoption for their Child. Tuart Hill, WA: The Association.

Burns Robinson, E. 2000. Adoption and Loss: The Hidden Grief. Christies Beach, SA: Clova Publications.

Burns Robinson, E. 2004. Adoption and Recovery: Solving the Mystery of Reunion. Christies Beach, SA: Clova Publications.

Burrows, J. 1994. For Too Long: Writing by Mothers Who Lost their Babies in the Adoption Scandal. Dulwich Hill, NSW: Mothers for Contact in Adoption Inc.

Butler, D., and Butler, V. 1993. Who am I? Toukley, NSW: V. Butler.

Chick, S. 1994. Searching for Charmian: The Daughter Charmian Clift Gave Away Discovers the Mother She Never Knew. Sydney: Pan Macmillan.

Coles, G. 2004. Ever After: Fathers and the Impact of Adoption. Christies Beach, SA: Clova Publications.

Coles, G. 2005. Transparent: Seeing Through the Legacy of Adoption. Melbourne: Mermerus Books.

Dalziell, R. 1997. ‘Religious experience and the displaced child: Autobiographies of illegitimacy and adoption’. St Mark’s Review 170: 24−29.

Dessaix, R. 1994. A Mother’s Disgrace. Sydney: Angus & Robertson.

Edwards C., Read, P. (eds) 1989. The Lost Children: thirteen Australians taken from their Aboriginal families tell of the struggle to find their natural parents. Sydney: Doubleday.

English, B. 1994. ‘What adoption tells us about ourselves’. Ulitarra 6: 112–116.

Fisher. M.C. 2004. Minnows and Mud. Leopold, Victoria: Nadia Zacchigna.

Foster, D. 1998. ‘She called her Coral because it was “a perfect pink day”: The neglecting of Coral’. Journal of Australian Studies 59: 20–38.

Frame, T.R. 1999. Binding Ties: An Experience of Adoption and Reunion in Australia. Sydney: Hale & Iremonger

Hammond, S. 1998. Adoption: Lies and Conspiracy. Montville, Qld: Oracle Press.

Harkness, L. 1991. Looking for Lisa. Milsons Point: Random House.

James, A. 2001. Teddy Bear Coming out of the Corner: the True Story of an Adoptive Mother Dealing with her Fears. Wahroonga, NSW: A. James.

Keenen, E. 2001. I Shook the Family Tree: The Story of an Adopted Boy. Mandurah, WA: Interesting Pub.

Livingston-Stuart, C. Robins, A. 1992. Why Was I Adopted? Sydney: Angus & Robertson.

Matthews, G. 1996. An Australian Son. Melbourne: Heinemann Australia.

McGuire, G. 1998. You Only Have One Mother, ed. G.K. Bastian. Springwood, NSW: Conference Publications.

Perl, L. Markham, S. 1999. ‘Why Wasn’t I Told?’ Making Sense of the Late Discovery of Adoption. Paddington, N.S.W.: The Benevolent Society of New South Wales.

Preston, Y. 1993. ‘The heartbreak no-one talks about. Foster parents’ views on adoption and care’.Independent Monthly (June).

Robinson, E. 2000. Adoption and Loss: The Hidden Grief. Christies Beach, SA: Clova Publications.

Robinson, E. 2009. Adoption Reunion: Ecstasy or Agony? Christie’s Beach, SA: Clova Publications.

Turner Smith, J. 2007. Adopting: Parents Stories. Kent Town, SA: Wakefield Press.

Valentine, C., Slaytor, P. 1990. Down the Track: Outcomes of Adoption Reunions: Personal Stories. Paddington, NSW: NSW Committee on Adoption, Social Work Department.

Watson, M. 2010. Surviving Secrets. A Journey of Resilience and Courage. Available online via A&A Book Publishing, at

Wasley, V. 2008. Yabbies in the Bath Tub (Or Our Children by Choice). Berri, SA: Wasley.

Adoption Search Guides and Evaluations

Feldman, S. 1990. An Evaluation Study of a Self-Search Program for Adult Adopted Persons in Victoria, Australia. MA thesis, Department of Social Work, Monash University.

Feldman, S. 1990. Self Search—A Program for Adult Adopted Persons: The Adoption Information Service Research Project 1990. Melbourne: Community Services Victoria.

Government of Victoria: Community Services Victoria, 1989 [and subsequent editions]. Searching in Adoption: A Guide: a Do-it-Yourself Guide Designed to Assist People Searching for Family Members From Whom They Have Been Separated by Adoption. Melbourne: Adoption Information Service.

Government of New South Wales: Department of Community Services, NSW, 1998 (revised 1999, 2000, 2001). Adoption Information Act 1990. Adoptees and Birthparents: Adoption Search Guide. Parramatta, NSW: [Family Information Service] Depatment of Community Services.

Government of South Australia: Adoption & Family Information Service, 2002. Accessing Your Family Information: An Overview. Adelaide.

Government of Victoria: Department of Human Services: Adoption Information Service, 1999 (sixth edition). Searching in Adoption and Wardship: A Guide. Melbourne: Department of Human Services.

Government of Western Australia: Department for Family and Children’s Services; Family Information and Adoption Service, March 1997. A Guide to Search, Mediation and Contact in Adoption. East Perth: Family & Children’s Services.

Government of W.A.: Department of Child Protection. Past Adoption Information and Services. , accessed March 2013.

Government of Western Australia: Department of Community Development, 2006. ROADS: An index of locations and access to adoption records.

McPhee, G., Webster, M. 1993. ‘Exposing adoption myths: Access to information about origins in Victoria’. Australian Journal of Social Issues 28 (2): 142–157.

Picton, C. 1988. Person in Question: Adoptees and Relinquishing Parents in Search of Each Other [microform]. M.Soc.Work thesis, Monash University, Victoria.

Swain, P., Swain, S. 1992. To Search for Self: The Experience of Access to Adoption Information. Sydney: Federation Press.

Thinee, K., and Bradford, T. 1998. Connecting Kin: Guide to Records, A guide to help people separated from their families search for their records. New South Wales Department of Community Services, Sydney, New South Wales.

Historical and Other Perspectives

Bates, F. 1975. Expert evidence in cases involving children’. University of Western Australia Law Review 12 (2) December: 139–152.

Bates, F. 2005. ‘Children’s Best Interests in Australia: Camouflage, Persiflage or What?’, International Family Law Journal (September): 138–145.

Boss, P., Edwards, S. 1992. Adoption Australia: A Comparative Study of Australian Adoption Legislation and Policy. Notting Hill, Vic.: National Children’s Bureau of Australia.

Condon, J. 1986. ‘Psychological disability in women who relinquish a baby for adoption’. Medical Journal of Australia 144 (3): 117–119.

Cowell, J., Crowe, K., Wilson, A. 1996. Understanding Reunion: Connection and Complexity: An Outcome Study of Adoption Reunion and the Process of Mediation at the Post Adoption Resource Centre. Sydney: Post-Adoption Resource Centre.

Cuthbert, D. 2010. ‘Beyond apologies: Historical reflections on policy and practice relating to the out-of-home care of children in contemporary Australia’. Children Australia, 35 (2): 12–17.

Cuthbert, D., Murphy K., Quartly, M. 2009. ‘Adoption and feminism: Towards framing a feminist response to contemporary developments in adoption’. Australian Feminist Studies 24, issue 62: 395–419.

Cuthbert, D., Quartly, M. (eds). 2010. Adoption, Fostering, Permanent Care and Beyond: Re-Thinking Policy and Practice in Out-of-home Care for Children in Australia. Special issue of Children Australia, 35.2.

Cuthbert, D., Quartly, M. 2012. ‘“Forced adoption” in the Australian story of national regret and apology’. Australian Journal of Politics and History 58: 82–96.

Cuthbert, D., Quartly, M. 2013 (forthcoming). ‘Forced Child Removal and the Politics of National Apologies in Australia’. American Indian Quarterly 37.

Charlesworth, S., Turner J. N., Forman, L. 2000. Disrupted Families and the Law, Leichhardt, NSW: Federation Press. 

Chapman, P., Sr. 1985. ‘Sixty-five Years of Adoption Practice in Tasmania’. Current Issues—New Trends. Proceedings of the First Tasmanian Conference on Adoption, Hobart, November.

Crowe, J., Toohey, L. 2009. ‘From Good Intentions to Ethical Outcomes: The Paramountcy of Children’s Interests in the Family Law Act’, Melbourne University Law Review 33: 391−414.

Farrar, P. D. 1999. Relinquishment and abjection: A semanlysis of the meaning of losing a baby to adoption. PhD thesis, University of Technology, Sydney.

Fernandez, E. 1996. Significant Harm: Unravelling Child Protection Decisions and Substitute Care Careers of Children: Perspectives of Child Welfare Workers and Biological Parents [in Australia]. Aldershot: Avebury.

Finlay, H. 2005. To Have and to Hold: A History of Attitudes to Marriage and Divorce in Australia, 1858–1975. Sydney: The Federation Press.

Fopp, P. 1975. The Child’s Right at Law in Adoption: A Paper’. Paper presented at a public seminar on “The Rights of the Child” at the University of Adelaide. [Adelaide: Department for Community Welfare.]

Gilding, M, 1991. The Making and Breaking of the Australian Family. Sydney: Allen &Unwin.

Grimshaw, P., Lake, M., McGrath, A., Quartly, M. 2006. Creating a Nation. Perth: Network.

Hale, M.1988. Past Relinquishing Mothers—A Forgotten Group. Honours thesis, South Australian Institute of Technology.

Hale, M. 1988. ‘Relinquishing mothers: The emergence of a neglected group’. South Australian Social Worker 4 (2): 4–6.

Harris, H. D. 2005. ‘The Infant Life Protection Act of 1890: (or how useful police records can be)’. Genealogist 11 (5): 180–181.

Harper, J. 1984. ‘ “Who am I?” A crisis of identity for the adopted adolescent’. Mental Health in Australia 1 (13), December.

Hocking, B.A., Harvey-Blankenship, M. 2002. ‘Genetics as a tool of justice, history and identity’. Australian Canadian Studies 20 (2): 65–80.

Howe, R, Swain, S. 1993. The Challenge of the City: The Centenary History of Wesley Central Mission. Melbourne: Hyland House.

Inglis, K. 1984. Living Mistakes: Mothers Who Consented to Adoption. Sydney: Allen &Unwin.

Jones, C. 2000. ‘Adoption: A study of post-war child removal in NSW’. Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society86 (1).

Kelly, S. 2000. ‘Adoption in Australia: An Overview’. In Family Futures: Issues in Research and Policy. Seventh Australian Institute of Family Studies Conference, Sydney, July.

Kerr, R. 1998. ‘Creating Citizens: The State and Child Welfare in Western Australia 1907−1954’. Paper presented at the International Federation for Research in Women’s History Conference, Melbourne, Victoria.

Kerr, R. 2001. ‘The appeal of blue eyes: Adoption, citizenship and eugenics in Western Australia during the interwar years’. In On the Edge: Refereed Proceedings of the Curtin Humanities Postgraduate Research Conference, Perth, Western Australia, pp. 3–12.

Lang, J. 1980. The Open Door. Perth: Ngala Mothercraft Home and Training Centre Inc.

Mandryk, M. K. 2011. Adopted Persons’ Access to and Use of their Original Birth Certificates: An Analysis of Australian Policy and Legislation. Master of Social Science thesis, RMIT University.

Marshall, A. 1987. Adoption, the Challenge of Change. Report Prepared for the NSW Catholic Social Welfare Committee. Sydney: New South Wales Catholic Social Welfare Committee.

Marshall, A., McDonald, M. 2001. The Many-Sided Triangle: Adoption in Australia. Carlton: Melbourne University Publishing.

Moor, M. 2005. Silent Violence: Australia’s Stolen White Children. PhD thesis, Griffith University.

Murphy, K., Quartly, M., Cuthbert, D. 2009. ‘“In the Best Interests of the Child”: Mapping the (Re) Emergence of Pro-Adoption Politics in Contemporary Australia’. Australian Journal of Politics and History, 55.2: 201–218.

Musgrove N., Swain, S. 2010The “Best Interests of the Child” in Historical Perspective’. Children Australia 35.2: 35–37.

O’Neill, C. 1994. ‘To attach or not?…the burning question’. Paper presented at the Fourth Australian Conference on Adoption , Canberra, 1990. Children Australia 19 (2): 15–17.

O’Neill, C. 1993. ‘“Do you mean, we’re not the only ones?” Disruption, powerlessness and empowerment’. Children Australia 18 (2): 13–17.

O’Neill, C., Absler, D. 1998. ‘“It must be because …” Non-biological care and mental health: Part I: Setting the context’.Children Australia 23 (3): 4−8.

Peel, M. 1998. Australian Families: Images and Essays. Melbourne: Scribe.

Picton, C. 1980. ‘Outcomes in adoption: The views of adoptees and natural parents’. Australian Child and Family Welfare 5: 1–8.

Quartly, M. 2010.The “Rights of the Child” in global perspective’. Adoption, Fostering, ChildrenAustralia 35.2: 38–42.

Quartly, M. 2012. ‘“[W]e find families for children, not children for families”: An incident in the long and unhappy history of relations between social workers and adoptive parents.” Social Policy and Society 11.3 (): 415–427.

Quartly, M., Cuthbert, D., Murphy, K., 2009.Political representations of adoption in Australia, 1996–2007.” Adoption and Culture 2: 141–158.

Quartly, M., Cuthbert, D., Swain, S. 2012. ‘A report on the findings of the Monash History of Adoption project.” Australian Journal of Adoption 6 (12): n. p. (Papers of the 10th Australian Adoption Conference). At

Quartly, M., Swain, S. 2012. “The market in children: analysing the language of adoption in Australia.” History Australia, 9 (2): 69–89.

Quirk, C.A. 2012. Separated at Birth: Adoption Practices in Relation to Single Women Confined at the Royal Women’s Hospital, 1945–1975. MPhil thesis, Australian Catholic University.

Reiger, K. 1985. The Disenchantment of the Home: Modernising the Australian Family. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Rosenwald, T. 2004. ‘From the Trenches of War on Adoption in Australia’. In Knowledge into Action! Effective Practice for Child and Family Services. Sydney: Conference of the Association of Children’s Welfare Agencies. At

Siedlecky, S., Wyndham, D. 1990. Populate and Perish: Australian Women’s Fight for Birth Control. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.

Spark, C., Cuthbert, D. 2009. Other People’s Children: Adoption in Australia. Melbourne: Australian Scholarly Publishing.

Swain, S. 2010. ‘Birth and death in a new land’. History of the Family 15 (1): 25–33.]

Swain, S. 2011. ‘Adoption, secrecy and the spectre of the true mother in twentieth-century Australia. Australian Feminist Studies 26:68: 193–205.

Swain, S. 2011. “Failing families: Echoes of nineteenth century child rescue discourse in contemporary debates around child protection.” In Marie-Louise Kulke and Christian Gutlebon (eds), Neo-Victorian Families: Gender, Sexual and Cultural Politics, 71−91. Netherlands: Rodopi.

Swain, S. 2010. ‘Australia’. In Brigitte Bechtold and Donna Cooper Graves (eds). An Encyclopedia of Infanticide, 24−27. Lewiston: The Edwin Mellen Press.

Swain, S. 2012. ‘Market forces: Defining the adoptable child, 1860–1940’. Social Policy and Society 11.3: 399–414.

Swain, S. 2012. ‘Snapshots from the long history of adoption in Australia’. Australian Journal of Adoption 6 (12): n. pag. (Papers of the 10th Australian Adoption Conference.) At:

Swain, S., Howe, R. 1995. Single Mothers and Their Children: Disposal, Punishment and Survival in Australia. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.

Swain, S., Hillel, M. 2010. Child, nation, race and empire: Child rescue discourse, England, Canada and Australia, 1850–1915. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Winkler, R., Van Keppel, M. 1984. Relinquishing Mothers in Adoption: Their Long Term Adjustment. Melbourne: Institute of Family Studies.

Indigenous Adoption

Aboriginal Child Care Agency, 1978. History and First Twelve Months of ACCA’s Operation. Fitzroy, Vic.: Victorian Aboriginal Child Care Agency.

Adelaide, D. 1996/1997. ‘Brown skin babies: An essay, recollection of feelings at the damage done to Aboriginal Australians over the years’. Southerly 56 (4): 7–18.

Armitage, A. 1995. Comparing the Policy of Aboriginal Assimilation: Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Askham, H. 1986. Aboriginal health issues: Our children and the bureaucracy. In Women’s Health in a Changing Society: 1985 Conference Proceedings, Vol. 2, Adelaide: Organising Committee, Second National Women’s Health Conference, pp. 30–35.

Atkinson, G. 1983. Aboriginal adoption: A re-evaluation. In R. Snow, (ed). Understanding Adoption: A Practical Guide. Sydney: Fontana Books.

Atkinson, G.J. 1991. Report on the Joint National Review of Aboriginal and Islander Child Care Agencies [AICCAs] (Report to the Ministers for Aged, Family and Health Services and Aboriginal Affairs, January 1991).

Australian Broadcasting Commission, 1990. Savage Indictment. VHS, 52 mins, Australian Broadcasting Commission.

Ban, P. 1989. The Application of the Queensland Adoption Act 1964–1988 to the Traditional Adoption Practice of Torres Strait Islanders. MA thesis, Department of Social Work, University of Melbourne.

Ban, P. 1990. The Tree of Life: Report to the Queensland Government on Legal Recognition of Torres Strait Islander Customary Adoption. Prepared for the LINA Torres Strait Islander Corporation, Queensland.

Ban, P. 1993. ‘Torres Strait Islander family life’. Family Matters 35: 16–17.

Ban, P. 1993. ‘The influence of indigenous perspectives of ‘family’ on some aspects of Australian and New Zealand child welfare practice’. Children Australia 18 (1): 20–22.

Ban, P. 1993. ‘The quest for legal recognition of Torres Strait Islander customary adoption practice’. Aboriginal Law Bulletin 2 (60): 4–5.

Ban, P. 1994. ‘Customary ‘adoption’ in the Torres Strait Islands: Towards legal recognition’. Aboriginal Law Bulletin 5.

Ban, P. 1996. ‘Developments in the legal recognition of Torres Strait Islander customary adoption’. Aboriginal Law Bulletin 3 (78): 14–15.

Briskman, L. 2001. Aboriginal Activism and the Stolen Generations: the Story of SNAICC. PhD thesis, Department of Social Work, Monash University.

Briskman, L. 2001. ‘Beyond apologies: The stolen generations and the churches’. Children Australia 26 (3): 4–8.

Briskman, L. 2003. The Black Grapevine: Aboriginal Activism and the Stolen Generations. Sydney: Federation Press.

Buti, T. 1995. ‘They took the children away [Western Australian project to redress some of the harm caused by removal of Aboriginal children from their families]’. Alternative Law Journal 20 (1): 35–36.

Buti, A. 2002. Australian Aboriginal Child Separations and Guardianships. Oxford: Oxford Univesity Press.

Buti, A. 2004. Separated: Australian Aboriginal Childhood Separations and Guardianship Law. Sydney: Sydney Institute of Criminology.

Butler, B. 1989. ‘Adopting an Indigenous approach’. Adoption and Fostering 13: 27–31.

Butler, B. 1990. ‘Aboriginal children and the international convention on the rights of the child’. Children Australia, 15 (2): 15.

Butler, B. 1992. ‘Aboriginal child protection’. In G. Calvert, A. Ford, P. Parkinson, (eds), The Practice of Child Protection: Australian Approaches. Sydney: Hale and Iremonger, 14–19.

Butler, B. 1993. ‘Our responsibility for our children’s future’. Paper presented at the International Year of the World’s Indigenous Peoples Conference, Wollongong, December.

Butler, B. 1993. ‘Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children: Present and future services and policy’. Children Australia 18(1): 4–8.

Butler, B. 1993, ‘Aboriginal Children: Back to Origins’, in Family Matters 35: 7–12.

Butler, B. 1994. ‘Aboriginal children: Still in terra nullius’. Rights Now 2 (3): 1–2.

Celermajer, D. 1998. ‘A sorry nation?’. Arena Magazine 36: 35–40.

Chisholm, R. 1982. ‘Aboriginal self-determination and child welfare: A case conference’. Australian Journal of Social Issues 17: 258.

Chisholm, R. 1982. ‘Child care, Aboriginal children and permanency planning: A sceptical view’. In R. Oxenberry, (ed) Changing Families: Proceedings of the Third Australian Conference on Adoption, Adelaide, May, p. 76.

Chisholm, R. 1983. ‘Aboriginal children: Political pawns or paramount consideration?’ In J. Jarrah (ed) Child Welfare: Current Issues and Future Directions, Social Welfare Research Centre, University of NSW, Seminar, 6 July, p.43.

Chisholm, R. 1985. ‘Destined children: Aboriginal child welfare in Australia: Directions of change’. Law and Policy, Aboriginal Law Bulletin, 14 (June): 6–8, continued in Aboriginal Law Bulletin, 15 (August): 7–8.

Chisholm, R. 1985. Black Children: White Welfare? Aboriginal Child Welfare Law and Policy Report in New South Wales, Social Welfare Research Centre, University of NSW, Reports and Proceedings No. 52, April.

Chisholm, R. 1988, ‘Aboriginal children and the placement principle’. Aboriginal Law Bulletin 2 (April): 4–7.

Choo, C. 1990. Aboriginal Child poverty. Child Poverty Policy Review No. 2. Melbourne: Brotherhood of St Lawrence.

Crawford, J.R., Howarth, J.M. 1982. ‘Aboriginal customary law: Child custody, fostering and adoption’. Australian Law Reform Commission: Research Paper.

Cummings, B. 1990. Take This Child. Canberra: Aborigines Studies Press.

Cunneen, C. 1999. ‘Criminology, genocide and the forced removal of indigenous children from their families’. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology 32 (2): 124–138.

Current Family Law. 1997. ‘Residence and parental responsibility: Cultural origins: inter-distinctiveness of Aboriginal cultures’. Current Family Law 3 (3): 132–134.

Cuthbert, D. 2001. ‘Holding the baby: Questions arising from research into the experiences of non-Aboriginal adoptive and foster mothers of Aboriginal children’. Social Semiotics 11 (2): 139–154.

Cuthbert, D. 2001. ‘Stolen children, invisible mothers and unspeakable stories: The experiences of non-Aboriginal adoptive and foster mothers of Aboriginal children’. Social Semiotics 11 (2): 139–154.

Cuthbert, D. 2000. ‘Mothering the ‘other’: Feminism, colonialism and the experiences of non-adoptive mothers of Aboriginal children’. Balayi : Culture, Law and Colonialism 1 (1): 31–49.

D’Souza, N. 1989. ‘An Aboriginal and Islander perspective’. Australian Journal of Early Childhood 14: 31.

D’Souza, N. 1990. ‘Aboriginal children: The challenge for the end of the millennium’. Children Australia 15 (2): 14.

D’Souza, N. 1993. ‘Aboriginal child welfare: Framework for a national policy’. Family Matters (35): 40.

D’Souza, N. 1994. ‘The Secretariat of the National Aboriginal and Islander Child Care’. Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal 18: 27.

D’Souza, N. 1995. ‘Call for a national inquiry into the removal of Aboriginal children’. Impact (April): 1.

Gilbert, S. 1993. ‘The effects of colonisation on Aboriginal families: Issues and strategies for child welfare policies’. In J. Mason, (ed). Child Welfare Policy: Critical Australian Perspectives. Sydney: Hale & Iremonger.

Godfrey, K. 1995. ‘The lost Kooris: A history of Aboriginal child welfare policies in New South Wales’. Alternative Law Journal 20 (1): 26.

Haebich, A. 2000. Broken Circles: Fragmenting Indigenous Families 1800–2000. Fremantle: Fremantle Arts Centre Press.

Harris, J. 1991. Report to the Child Protection Policy and Planning Unit South Australia on the Child Protection Project from the Ngaanyatjarra, Pitjantjatjara, Yankunytjatjara Women’s Council, Adelaide.

Heilpern, S., Heilpern, H., Bolt, S., and Clancy, A. 1994. Evaluation of Departmental Services for Child Protection: Aboriginal Clients. Sydney: Department of Community Services.

Jackson, B. (ed). 1979. The First Aboriginal Child Survival Seminar (If Everyone Cared): A Report Arising from an International Seminar on Aboriginal Family Life and the Welfare of Aboriginal Children, Melbourne, 23–25 April.

Kendall, C. 1995. ‘History, present and future: Issues affecting Aboriginal adults who were removed as children from their families under the NSW Aborigines Protection Act 1883–1969’. In Has Adoption A Future? Proceedings of the Fifth Australian Adoption Conference. Sydney: Post Adoption Resource Centre.

Kendall, C., Clayton-Bown, B., Read, P. 1995. Link Up, Lawson, NSW: Link-Up (NSW) Aboriginal Corporation.

Manchester, W., Bannister, J. 1999. Wendy Manchester, interviewed by John Bannister in the Bringing them Home Oral History Project, (Audiobook). Bringing them Home Oral History Project.

Mellor, D., Haebich, A. (eds). 2002. Many Voices: Reflections on Experiences of Indigenous Child Separation. Canberra: National Library of Australia.

Merkel, R. 1990. ‘Government Culpability for the Forced Removal of Aboriginal Children from their Families’. Aboriginal Law Bulletin 2 (47): 4–5.

Nicholson, A. 1995. Indigenous customary law and family law’. Family Matters 42: 24–29.

Nile, R., Haebich, A., Huggins, J. (eds). 1998. Who Will Look After the Children? St Lucia: University of Queensland Press.

O’Connor, I. 1993. Aboriginal child welfare law: Policies and practices in Queensland, 1865–1989’. Australian Social Work 46 (3): 11–22.

Read, P. 1981. The Stolen Generations: The Removal of Aboriginal Children in New South Wales 1833–1969. Sydney: Government Printer.

Read, P. 1999. A Rape of the Soul so Profound: The Return of the Stolen Generations. St Leonards: Allen & Unwin.

Special Broadcasting Service. 2008.First Australians: The Untold Story of Australia, DVD. Melbourne: Madman Entertainment

Sommerlad, E. 1976. ‘Home for Blacks, Aboriginal community and adoption: Report of the workshop on Aboriginal community and adoption, 1976’. First Australian Conference on Adoption, Sydney, February. Canberra: Centre for Continuing Education, Australian National University.

Spry, I. 1999. ‘Aboriginal children taken under government care: Further facts justifying welfare officers’. National Observer 40: 56–59.

Swain, S. “‘Homes are sought for these children’. Locating Adoption Within the Australian Stolen Generations Narrative.” American Indian Quarterly 37 (2013, forthcoming).

Wilkinson, D. 1994. ‘Aboriginal child placement principle: Customary law recognition and further legislative reform’. Aboriginal Law Bulletin 3 (71): 13–15.

Young, S. 1998. ‘The long way home: Reparation for the removal of Aboriginal children’. University of Queensland Law Journal 20 (1): 70–89.

Inter-Country Adoption

Armstrong, S., Slaytor, P. 2001. The Colour of Difference: Journeys in Transracial Adoption. Sydney: Federation Press.

Australian Journal of Family Law. 1993. ‘Convention on Inter-Country Adoptions’. Australian Journal of Family Law7 (3): 187–190.

Bayes, H. 1993 ‘Protecting Children in Intercountry Adoption’. Adoption Australia(Summer): 9.

Benson, C., Hampson, R., Eastern Sydney Area Health Service (NSW), Staff Development Centre, Audiovisual Resource Department, Inter-Country Adoptive Parents Working Party. 1989. Aussie Kids –Adopted from Overseas. Broadway, NSW: Inter-Country Adoptive Parents Working Party.

Blancher, T. 1980. Resettlement of Unattached Refugee Children in Victoria, 1975–1979. Melbourne: Clearing House on Migration Issues.

Bojorge, C. 2002. ‘Inter-country adoptions: in the best interests of the child?’ Law and Justice Journal 2 (2): 266–291.

Bopage, L. 2003. ‘Maintaining Sri Lankan traditions’. Canberra Historical Journal 52: 37–39.

Briand, R. 1973. The Waifs. Melbourne: Rena Briand.

Calder, R. 1978. Families for Children: A Study of the Adoption Experience of Older Age Foreign Born Children and Their Australian Families. BA Honours thesis, Monash University.

Carney, Terry, ‘Overseas Adoptions. The Best Interests of the Child in Solomon’s Jungle’, Legaldat (LegalDate Supplement, June 1989).

Charlesworth, S. 1993. ‘Ensuring the rights of children in inter-country adoption: Australian attitudes to access to adoption information’. In John Eekelaar and Petar Šarčević (eds), Parenthood in Modern Society: Legal and Social Issues for the Twenty-first Century, 251–265. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff.

Choularton, K. 1977. ‘Inter-country adoption: Some psychological problems. Seminar on inter-country adoption, University of Adelaide, 9–10 July, Proceedings, pp. 39–41. Adelaide: Department of Adult Education, University of Adelaide.

Clair, S. ‘Child trafficking and Australia’s interCountry adoption system’, University of Queensland Human Trafficking Working Group research paper, January 2012. At

Committee Bulletin. 2005. ‘The heartache of the Queensland adoption process’. Committee Bulletin 16 (9): 1–2.

Commonwealth Law Bulletin. 1997. ‘Inter-country adoption and parent support groups’. Commonwealth Law Bulletin 23 (1& 2): 290–305.

Conin, K. 2001. ‘Primary consideration: Children’s rights in Australian immigration law’. In Melinda Jones and Lee Ann Basser Marks, (eds). Children on the Agenda: The Rights of Australian Children, 147–162. St Leonards, NSW: St Prospect Media Pty Ltd.

Cooper, D. 2004. ‘Same sex couples, marriage and overseas adoption’. Queensland Lawyer 25 (1): 7–8.

Cox, D. (ed), April 1986. Intercountry Adoption. Melbourne: International Social Service Australian Branch and Dept of Social Studies, University of Melbourne.

Crawford, J. 1977. ‘Inter-country adoption: The legal aspects’. In Proceedings of the Seminar on Inter-Country Adoption, University of Adelaide, 9–10 July, 1977, pp. 52–62. Adelaide: Department of Adult Education, University of Adelaide.

Cuthbert, D. (ed). 2012. The Vietnam Inheritance. Special issue of Journal of Australian Studies 36 (4).

Cuthbert, D. (ed). 2012Waiting for a Better World: Critical and Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Intercountry Adoption, Themed section of Social Policy and Society 11 (3).

Cuthbert, D., Swain, S. Quartly, M. 2010. ‘Interdisciplinary perspectives on intercountry adoption in Australia’ (Workshop summary). At

Cuthbert, D., Spark, C., Murphy K. 2010. ‘“That was then, but this is now”. Historical perspectives on intercountry and domestic child adoption in Australian public policy’. Journal of Historical Sociology 23 (3): 427–452.

Current Family Law. 2000. ‘Amendments to the family law (Hague Convention on Inter-country Adoption) regulations’. Current Family Law 6 (1): 4–6.

Dalton, R., O’Donnell, L. 1999. ‘Tapping into China’s baby market’. The Australian, 6 March, 7.

del Dastillo, L. 2004. Social work and international collaboration in child placement. Paper presented at the 8th Australian Conference on Adoption.

Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs. Public Affairs Section. 2002. Adopting Children from Overseas, Canberra: DIMIA.

Dobbie, M. Van den Elshout, M. 2004. ‘Adopting Xiaolian: Personal experiences of intercountry adoption’. Australian Mosaic 7: 33–34.

Douglas-Henry, J., Thorburn, C., Cummins, J., Flynn, J., Australian Film Finance Commission, Iris Pictures, Heiress Films, SBS Independent, Film Australia Pty Ltd, 2002. From Korea with Love (VHS, 52 minutes). Lindfield, NSW: Film Australia.

English, B. 1990. ‘Intercountry Adoptions—The context of recent developments and the need for research’. Children Australia 15 (1) (March): 16–20.

Forkert, J. 2012. Orphans of Vietnam: A History of Intercountry Adoption Policay and Practice in Australia, 1968–75. PhD University of Adelaide.

Forkert, J. 2012.Refugees, orphans and a basket of cats: the politics of Operation Babylift.” In Denise Cuthbert (ed), The Vietnam Inheritance. Special issue of Journal of Australian Studies 36 (4): 427–444.

Fopp, P. A. 1978. ‘Adoption Legislation and Practice in Australia’. A paper prepared by the Australian delegration of social welfare authorities to certain South-East Asian countries for talks on Inter-country adoption matters, August 1978.

[Fopp, P. A.] 1978. Report ‘Australian delegation on inter-country adoption to certain Asian countries’, December 1978.

Fopp, P. A. 1980. ‘The Australian Uniform Inter-country adoption programme’. A report prepared by the Commonweathwealth/State ICA Committee for the Conference of Social Welfare Administrators, 21 March 1980.

Fopp, P.A. 1980. Intercountry Adoption: Australia’s Position. Adelaide: Department of Community Welfare.

Fopp, P.A. 1982. ‘Inter-country adoption: Australia’s position’. Australian Journal of Social Issues 17: 50–61.

Fopp, P.A. 1992. ‘The rights of the child in inter-country adoption’. Paper presented to the Inter-country adoption workshop of the Third Australian Conference on Adoption, Adelaide, 17 May. Adelaide: University of Adelaide.

Fronek, P. 2009. Understanding the Emergence, Diffusion and Continuance of Intercountry Adoption from South Korea to Queensland, Australia. PhD thesis, School of Social Work and Human Services, University of Queensland.

Fronek, P. 2012. “Operation Babylift: Advancing intercountry adoption in Australia.” Journal of Australian Studies 36(4): 445–458.

Fronek, P., Cuthbert D. 2012. ‘History repeating . . . Disaster-related intercountry adoption and the psychosocial care of children’. Social Policy and Society 11(3): 429–442.

Fronek, P., Cuthbert, D. 2012. ‘The future of inter-country adoption: A paradigm shift for this century.” International Journal of Social Welfare 21(2): 215–224.

Gerhmann, R. 2005. ‘Promoting a multi-racial Australia: Population policy and inter-country adoption’. The Australian Quarterly 77 (4): 13–18.

Gill, A., Rack, R. 2004. ‘Young refugees from Hitler’s Germany’. Address to The Sydney Institute on 11 October 2004. Published as ‘Young refugees in Australia’. The Sydney Papers 16 (4): 94–106.

Gray, K. M. ‘Bananas, Bastards and Victims’? Hybrid Reflections on Cultural Belonging in Intercountry Adoptee Narratives. PhD thesis, University of Newcastle, 2007.

Harper, J. 1987. ‘Inter-country adoption of older children in Australia’. Adoption Australia 9: 4–9.

Harper, J., Bonanno, H. 1993. ‘Racial awareness and racist attitudes in Inter-country adoption’. Australian Journal of Early Childhood 18 (3): 28–34.

Harvey, I, 1982. ‘Transracial adoption in Australia’. Adoption and Fostering 6 (1): 43–49.

Harvey, I.J. 1981. Australian Parents for Vietnamese Children: A Social and Psychological Study of Inter-Country Adoption. Sydney: Department of Youth and Community Services.

Harvey, I.J. 1984. ‘Adoption of Vietnamese children: An Australian study’. Australian Journal of Social Issues 18: 55–69.

Hansberger, R. A. C. 1988. ‘Inter-country adoption: Society’s responsibilities to children adopted into cultures other than their own. Paper presented to a seminar, Perth, and to International Conference on Adoption and Permanent Care, Melbourne, November 1988’. Australian Child and Family Welfare 13 (4): 3–6.

Henderson, K. ‘Ethics in human service organisations’, In Ethical Practice in Government: Improving Organisational Management, 1996, p.43–51.

Inter-Country Adoptive Parents Working Party, NSW Committee on Adoption Inc. 2002. Going it Alone, Intercountry Adoptees Grown Up (VHS Video). Sydney:Art Resistance [for the Intercountry Adoptive Parents Working Party].

Jaffe, E. D. ( ed.). 1995. Inter-country Adoptions: Laws and Perspectives of “Sending” Countries. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

Kane, S. 1993. ‘The movement of children for international adoption: An epidemiological perspective’. The Social Science Journal 30 (4): 323–339.

Le, D. Barrow, H., Grieve, A. 2005. Operation Babylift (DVD, 52 mins), Lindfield, NSW: Film Australia.

Madden, R. 1992. ‘Red Tape Maroons Children (letter)’. The Australian, 22 May: 18.

Martin, D. [2007?]. ‘Inter country Adoption in Australia’, ISS Australian Branch.

Mason, B., Mason, G. 1998. Little Brother, Little Sister (VHS 52 minutes). Produced by Australian Film Finance Corporation & Alfred Road Films Pty Ltd. Lindfield, NSW: Film Australia.

Mason, B., Mullane, M., Film Australia, Iris Pictures. 2006. Growing Up and Going Home, (Video). Lindfield, NSW: Film Australia.

McCarthy, A. 1994. Factors Influencing Client Satisfaction with the Inter-country Adoption Experience. Melbourne: Australian Society for Inter-country Aid (Children).

McGowan, B. 1977. ‘The case of inter-country adoption’. Proceedings of the Seminar on inter-country adoption, University of Adelaide, 9–10 July, 3–19. Adelaide: Department of Adult Education, University of Adelaide.

Murphy, K., Pinto, S., Cuthbert, D. 2010. ‘“These infants are future Australians”: Making the nation through intercountry adoption.” Journal of Australian Studies 34(2): 141–161.

Nguyen, T. H. and Vinh, P. Committee for the Preparation for Vietnamese Reading Materials, 1984. The Adopted Children in the Kelly Family, Nhu’ng du’a con nuôi trong gia dình Kelly. Melbourne: Committee for the Preparation of Vietnamese Reading Materials by Vietnamese Language and Culture Publications.

Pasipanodya, M. 2002. ‘A family for us: Autobiography of Fijian immigrant Madu Pasipanodya’. In Myra Jean Bourke, Susanne Holzknecht and Annie Bartlett (eds), Weaving a Double Cloth: Stories of Asia-Pacific Women in Australia, 113–125. Canberra: Pandanus Books.

Picton, C., Calder, R. 1982. ‘Adoption. Inter-country adoption policy in Australia—the abnegation of responsibility’. Australian Child and Family Welfare Quarterly 7 (2): 10–13.

Rollings, J. 1994. ‘The intercountry adoptee and immigration health requirements’. Adoption Australia, Winter: 5–8.

Selman, P. 2002. ‘Intercountry adoption in the new millennium: The “quiet migration” revisited’. Population Research and Policy Review 21: 205–225.

Selman, P. 2006. ‘Trends in intercountry adoption: Analysis of data from 20 receiving countries, 1998–2004’. Journal of Population Research 23 (2): 183–204.

Smith, M.A., Konwicki, J., SBS-TV. 1989. Pick Up the Child (VHS Video, 23 minutes). SBS-TV, Milsons Point, NSW.

Susskind, A. 2004. ‘Bringing over baby’. The Bulletin 8 June, 122 (6424): 30.

Taft, M., Dreyfus, K., Quartly M., Cuthbert., D. Spring 2013 . ‘“I knew who I was not, but not who I was”. Public storytelling in the lives of Australian adoptees’. Oral History (UK) 41(1).

Taylor, R. 1990. ‘Inter-country adoption, WA’. Adoption Australia Winter: 14–18.

Telfer, J., and Telfer, J. 1986. Bridges: A Guide for Those Associated with Building a Korean-Australian family through Adoption in South Australia. Adelaide: Korean Friendship Group Inc. (SA).

Telfer, J. 2003. ‘The imagined child: Ambiguity and agency in Australian inter-country adoption’. Australian Journal of Anthropology 14 (1): (72)–79.

Turner, N. J. 1995. ‘Why don’t you take more of our children?’ Law Institute Journal 69 (6): 559–561, 563.

Tudball. L., nd. Little Brother, Little Sister—Study Guide. Lindfield, NSW: Film Australia. Electronic version available at

Unicef’s position on inter-country adoption. nd.

West, R. 1989. ‘Whatever happened to the best interests of the child?’ The Age, 11 August, p.22.

Williams, I. 2004. ‘New dimensions to old identities [Immigration experiences of adopted Vietnamese]’. Adoption Australia Autumn: 6–8.

Willing, I. A. W[illiams]. 2010. Transnational Adoption and Constructions of Identity and Belonging: A Qualitative Study of Australian Parents of Children Adopted from Overseas. PhD thesis, University of Queensland.

Willing, I., Fronek P., Cuthbert. D. 2012. ‘Review of sociological literature on intercountry adoption’. Social Policy and Society 11(3): 465–479.

Wilson, B. ‘Treating people like babies: intercountry adoptions’. Legal Service Bulletin 14 (4): 188–190.

Law and Law Reform


Alston, P., Brennan G. (eds), 1991. The U.N. Children’s Convention and Australia. Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, ANU Centre for International and Public Law, Australian Council of Social Service.

Australian Journal of Family Law, 1991. ‘Adoption Information Act, 1990’. Australian Journal of Family Law 5 (2): 99–102.

Bates, F. 1989. ‘The children of Mansoul: Adopted children and natural parents: some comparative developments’. Australian Law Journal 63 (5): 314–326.

Degeling, J. 2003. ‘Inter-country adoption in international law: National report for Australia’. Colloque Sur L’Adoption Internationale En Droit Compare, Paris, 25–26 Avril, 1–35.

Degeling, J. 1993. ‘Inter-country adoption: A new convention for Australia?’ Australian Law Librarian 1 (5): 214–218.

Fletcher, B. 1991. ‘‘Trans-Tasman’ family law: First impressions of a New Zealand family solicitor practising in Australia’. New Zealand Law Journal, September: 300–304.

Harvey, I. J., Dolgopol, U., Castell-McGregor, S. (eds). 1993. Implementing the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child in Australia. Adelaide: South Australian Children’s Interests Bureau.

Kirby, M. D. 1993. ‘The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Declaration of the Rights of the Child as part of international law and municipal law’. Paper presented at First World Congress on Family Law and Human Rights, Sydney, 4–9 July.

Lurvey, I. H., Rutkin, A.H. 1993. ‘First World Congress on family law and children’s rights’. Family Advocate 15 (4): 14–16.

Turner, J. N. 1992. ‘The Rights of the Child under the U.N. Convention: Some Lessons from Europe’. Law Institute Journal 66 (1–2): 38–45.


Australian Journal of Family Law, 1991. ‘Adoption Information Act 1990’. Australian Journal of Family Law 5 (2): 99–102.

Ball, C. 2002. ‘Regulating inclusivity: Reforming adoption law for the 21st century’. Child and Family Social Work 7: 285–296.

Bailey-Harris, R. 1986. ‘Re F and the jurisdiction of the Family Court in Australia’. Australian Law Journal 60, December: 659–667.

Clair, S. 2010, ‘Taking into account “The Best Interests of the Child” in the Australian intercountry adoption system: An analysis of the principle, practice and persuasive force of a much-debated legal phrase’. Queensland Law Student Review 3 (1): 38–55.

Commonwealth Law Journal, 1990. ‘Adoption Information Act 1990: Review’. Commonwealth Law Bulletin 19 (3), July: 1048–1050.

Commonwealth Law Journal, 1990. ‘Adoption of Children Act 1965: Review’. Commonwealth Law Journal 19 (3), July: 1047–1048.

Do Campo, Consuelo, 2013. ‘Perfectly legal illegal adoptions: A critical examination of Australia’s approach to duly informed consent when converting adoptions under the Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption’. Honours thesis, ANU College of Law, Australian National University.

Finlay, H. 1988. ‘Constitutional law—family law—interaction between the Federal exercise of the marriage power and State power over adoption—suggested supremacy of marriage power’. Australian Law Journal 62 (5): 392–394.

Hambly, D. 1967–68. ‘Adoption of Children—An Appraisal of the Uniform Acts’. University of Western Australia Law Review 8 (3): 281–318.

Harland, A[lexandra]. Outside the Nuclear Family: Same Sex Law Reforms and Notions of Parenthood’. Undated online paper, accessed March 2013. (updating an article published in Current Family Law Journal [2009])

Jessep, O., Chisholm, R. 1992. ‘Step-parent adoptions and the Family Law Act’. Australian Journal of Family Law 6 (2): 179–187.

Parkinson, P. .Decision-making about the best interests of the child: The impact of the two tiers’, Australian Journal of Family Law 20 179–186.

Singer, M. 1991. ‘Intercountry adoption: dilemmas in law and procedure’, Law Institute Journal 65(5): 374–377.

Turner, N. 1995. ‘Adoption or anti-adoption: Time for a national review of Australian law’. James Cook University Law Review (2): 43–81.

Williams, D. 1996. Family Law: Future Directions, National Press Club Address, 15 October, pp. 1–25

Working Party of the Family Court, 1996. Representing The Child’s Interests In the Family Court of Australia: Report to the Chief Justice of the Family Court of Australia, September.


Hale, S. 1993. ‘Adoption Information Act’. Law Society of the Australian Capital Territory Gazette 143, February: 47–48.

Hale, S. 1992. ‘Commission recommends maintenance of open approach to adoption: some modifications warranted’. Law Society Journal, 30 (11), December: 48.

Wallace, M. 1994. ‘Substitute parent agreements in the ACT’. Canberra Law Review, 1(1), November: 148–152.

New South Wales

Anderson, M. 1997. Adoption Laws in New South Wales. Sydney: LAAMS Publications.

Australian Journal of Family Law, 1993. ‘Adoption Information: Review of NSW Act’. Australian Journal of Family Law 7 (1), April: 1–2.

Chisholm, R. 1997. ‘Review of the Adoption of Children Act, 1965 (NSW)’. Australian Journal of Family Law 11 (2), July: 131–132.

Chisholm, R. 1980. ‘End of uniformity: New adoption laws for NSW’. Legal Service Bulletin 5 (2), April: 49–51.

College of Law (Sydney, NSW). 1988. The New Law of Adoptions: Being Papers Presented by the Continuing Legal Education Department of the College of Law on Friday, 25 March 1988. Sydney: CLE Department of the College of Law.

College of Law (Sydney NSW). 1991. The New Adoption Legislation: Being Papers Presented by the Continuing Legal Education Department of the College of Law on Friday 5 April 1991. Sydney: The College.

Hambly, D., Chart, J. 1980. ‘The Adoption of Children (amendment) Act 1980 (N.S.W.)’. Australian Current Law, September: 39, 42.

Hambly, D; Chart, J. 1980. ‘An adoption tribunal for New South Wales’. Australian Current Law, July: 29, 31.

Law Society. 1982. ‘Foreign orders of adoption’. Law Society Journal 20 (5), June: 357. [Brief note that s.46 (2) b of the Adoption of Children Act 1965 has been repealed]

Litherland, J.C. 1940. The Law Relating to Child Welfare Affiliation and Adoptions (Child Welfare Act 1939) with Annotations, Regulations and Forms made under the Child Welfare Act, 1939, and Rules and Forms made by the Supreme Court of NSW for use in Adoption Proceedings. Sydney: Law Book Co of Australasia.

Otlawski, M. 1998. ‘Casenotes: NSW Supreme Court approves adoption of child born under surrogacy arrangement: W: Re adoption’. Current Family Law 4 (6) December: 270–273.

Smith, D. [1988], 1991. ‘The new adoption process’. Paper Presented by the Continuing Legal Education Department of the College of Law on Friday 25 March 1988 and substantially updated for presentation on Friday 5 April 1991. Sydney: College of Law.

Smith, D. 1994. Developments in the Law of Adoptions: Papers presented for the Continuing Legal Education Department of the College of Law on Friday 18th November 1994. Sydney: Continuing Legal Education Department, College of Law.

Smith, D. 1995. ‘The Law of Adoptions’. Paper presented to the Continuing Legal Education Department of the College of Law, Saturday 6 November, Gold Coast, Qld. Updated for presentation on Wednesday 31st May 1995 in Newcastle. Sydney: The Department.

Squire, M. 1991. ‘Adoption information and the question of privacy’. Law Society Journal 29 (7), August: 69–72.

Starke, J.G. 1991. ‘The New South Wales Adoption Information Act, 1990’. Australian Law Journal 65 (7), July: 371–372.

Turner, N.J. 1993. ‘Review of the Adoption Information Act 1990 (NSW), July 1992. New South Wales Law Reform Commission Report No 69’. Monash University Law Review 19 (2): 343–354.

Tupman, R. 1992. ‘Family law applications involving children: Children outside the Family Court jurisdiction’. Paper presented by the Continuing Legal Education Department of the College of Law, Saturday, 30 November 1991 and Saturday, 28 November, 1992. Sydney: CLE Department of the College of Law.

Australian Law Reform Commission. 1990. ‘New adoption law: The response to social change’. Reform 59, July: 136–138.


Volard, J. 1983, Access to Information: An Issue of Adoption Legislation in Queensland, Legal Service Bulletin, 8 (1): 37–38.

Volard, J. 1982, Framing adoption legislation in Queensland: Children with special needs’, Legal Services Bulletin, 7 (5), October: 246–247.


Otlawski, M. 1989. The Changing Face of Adoption Law in Tasmania, in Australian Journal of Family Law, 3 (2) June, pp. 161–183.

Buxton, C. 2003. Adoption by Same Sex Couples, Final Report No. 2. Hobart: Tasmania Law Reform Institute.

Buxton, C., Warner, K. 2003. Adoption by Same Sex Couples. Hobart: Tasmania Law Reform Institute.


Bourke, J. P., Fogarty, J. 1962. Maintenance, Custody and Adoption Law, Comprising Maintenance, Custody and Adoption Under the Maintenance Act 1958 and Adoption of Children Act 1958 of Victoria, and Maintenance and Custody Under the Commonwealth Matrimonial Causes Act 1959. Melbourne: Butterworths.

Bourke, J.P., Fogarty, J. 1972. Bourke and Fogarty’s Maintenance custody and adoption law: Comprising marriage, custody and adoption under the Maintenance act 1965 of Victoria, Marriage act 1958 of Victoria and Adoption of children act 1964 of Victoria, and maintenance and custody under the Commonwealth matrimonial causes act 1959–1966. Melbourne: Butterworths.

Harper, P. 1982. Changing Laws for Changing Families. Discussion Paper, no. 9. Melbourne: Institute of Family Studies.

Harper, P. 1981. ‘Adoption law reform: In search of self-identity—access to information’. Legal Service Bulletin 6 (1) February: 52–53.

Institute of Family Studies; Family Information Centre. 1983. Legal Aspect of Adoption, September, 1983. Melbourne: Institute of Family Studies.

Jaggs, D. Neglected and criminal: Foundations of Child Welfare Legislation in Victoria. Centre for Youth and Community Studies, PIT.

Law Institute, 1984. ‘Start new jurisdiction—stop adoption distinction’. Law Institute Journal 58 (10), October: 1129.

Law Institute. 1988. ‘Legal options for step-parents and relatives caring for children’. Law Institute Journal 62 (3), March: 157–159.

Law Institute. 2002. ‘Family law in spotlight’. Law Institute Journal 76 (11), December: 81.

Law Institute. 2005. ‘Recognising all parents’. Law Institute Journal 79 (9), September: 80.

Leo Cussen Institute; Law Institute of Victoria. 1986. Adoption Laws: Recent Changes. Melbourne: Leo Cussen Institute and the Law Institute of Victoria.

Meggitt, M. 1991. The Role of Self Help in the Development of Public Policy: An Analysis of the Victorian 1984 Adoption of Children Act. MA thesis, Department of Politics,Monash University.

National Council for the Single Mother and her Child. 1977. Adoption of Children Act: Access to Information Concerning Adoption: A Submission to Statute Law Revision Committee of the Parliament of Victoria, 12 June 1977. Warranwood, Vic.: National Council for the Single Mother and her Child.

Victorian Law Reform Commission, 2003. Assisted Reproduction & Adoption: Should the Current eligibility criteria in Victoria be changed? Consultation Paper. Melbourne: Victorian Law Reform Commission.

Victorian Law Reform Commission, 2005. Access: Assisted Reproductive Technology & Adoption. Position papers one and two. Melbourne: Victorian Law Reform Commission.

Victorian Law Reform Commission, 2007. Assisted Reproductive Technology & Adoption: Final Report. Melbourne: Victorian Law Reform Commission.

Rose-Innes, A., Mitchell, C. 1983. Legal Aspects of Adoption. Melbourne: Institute of Family Studies.

Sandor, D. 2002. ‘Victorian Law Reform enquiry into children’s rights’. Law and Policy Journal of the National Children’s and Youth Law Centre December: 14.

Shiff, P. 1992. The Adoption Act 1984 (Vic.): Intercultural Adoption and Constitutional Aspects. PhD thesis, Faculty of Law, Monash University.

Stonehouse, B. 1992. Adoption Law in Australia. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies.

Western Australia

Gupta, T. 1997. Adoption Legislative Review: Adoption Act (1994): Final Report. Perth: Family and Children’s Services.

Kendall, C.N. et al. 2000, Same Sex Relationships in Western Australia, E-Law (Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law) 7 (4), December: 1–45.

Adoption in Australia: Contemporary Debates and Issues

Albrechtsen, J. 2002. ‘Restoring adoption’. Quadrant 46: 15–20.

Armstrong, S. 2002. ‘No more secrets: Donor conception and adoption’. Australian Children’s Rights News 32: 15–17.

Australian Broadcasting Commission, 1976. Child Adoption: Discussion Arising Out of the First Australian Conference on Adoption, Sydney, February, 1976. (Sound Recording, 50 mins). Sydney: ABC Radio.

Australian Broadcasting Commission, 1988. The Adoption Triangle. (Sound Recording, 30 mins). Perth: ABC Radio.

Bates, F. 1986–87. ‘Australia: The beginning of a new phase’. Journal of Family Law 25 (1): 3–18.

Bath, H. 2000. ‘Rights and realities in the permanency debate’. Children Australia 25 (4): 13–17.

Cashmore, J. 2000. ‘What the research tells us: Permanency planning, adoption and foster care’. Children Australia 25 (4): 17–22.

Clare, M. 1991. ‘Family systems thinking and adoption practice’. Australian Social Work 44 (3): 3–13.

Fopp, P.A. 1979. Adoption in Australia: Present Status, Likely Trends and Policies. Adelaide: Department of Community Welfare.

Harper, J. 1987. ‘A current issue in adoption: The single adoptive parent’. Adoption Australia 12: 4–11.

Harper, J. 1990. ‘The good enough adoptive parent’. Mental Health in Australia 2 (4).

Harper, P. 1980. ‘In search of self-identity—access to information’. Proceedings of a seminar on adoption held at Collingwood Education Centre, Melbourne, 16 August 1980. Warranwood: National Council for the Single Mother and her Child.

Healey, J. 1999. Adoption. Sydney: Spinney Press.

Hudson, R. 2001. ‘Adoptions – facts and realities’. Indomedia Jul–Aug: 21.

Kraus, J. 1982. The Only Child as an Issue in Adoption Policy: Myth and Evidence. Sydney: Department of Youth and Community Services.

Laing, B. 1998. ‘Seeking a perfect match?’ Adoption Australia Winter: 8–10.

Learner, E. 1986. ‘Social issues common to adoption and the new reproductive technologies’. Australian Journal of Early Childhood 11 (4): 37–42.

Marburg, M. 1998. Real Parents: Confronting Adoption Issues. Melbourne: Windsor Scroll Publishing.

Millar, M. 2000. ‘The right to Know: Secrecy and donor conception’. Australian Rationalist 53: 20–24.

Mulvany, T. 1996. Current Adoption Concepts. Melbourne: Leo Cussen Institute.

Picton, C., Boss, P. 1981. ‘Philosophies and trends in Adoption’, in Picton and Boss. (eds), Child Welfare in Australia: An Introduction, 95–115. Sydney: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Powell, S. 1995. Be My Family: A Guide to Adoption in Australia. North Blackburn, Victoria: Harper Collins.

Shawyer, J. 1985. ‘The Politics of Adoption’, Healthright 5(1): 26–28.

Slaytor, P. 2002. ‘Adoption’, Descent 32(1): 8–12.

Snow, R. 1983.Understanding Adoption: A Practical Guide. Sydney: Fontana/Collins.

Tabak, S. 1999. Adoption: Myth and Reality: the Adoption Information Service in Victoria. Melbourne: Adoption Information Service, Department of Human Services..

Turner, N. J. 2000. ‘Custody and access: Are children’s interests being protected?’ Children Australia 15 (4): 13–20.

Young, P.W. 1995. ‘Adoptions’, Australian Law Journal, 69 (9): 677–678.