Read some of The Market in Babies

The Market in Babies is the product of the research of the History of Adoption research team. Monash University Publishing brought it out in November 2013. The book’s Table of Contents can be viewed here, and its Introduction here.

 

Government Reports

Commonwealth

Parliament of Australia: Royal Commission on Human Relationships, Transcript of proceedings, The Commission, Sydney, 1974−76.

Parliament of Australia: Royal Commission on Human Relationships, Interim Report 30th January 1976, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1976

Parliament of Australia: Royal Commission on Human Relationships, Final Report, Volumes 1−7, (Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1977)

Parliament of Australia: Joint Standing Committee on Treaties. Report 17: United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1997. http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/House_of_Representatives_Committees?url=jsct/reports/report17/rept17contents.htm

Parliament of Australia: Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Lost Innocents: Righting the Record—Report on child migration, August 2001, (Commonwealth of Australia 2001) http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate_Committees?url=clac_ctte/completed_inquiries/1999-02/child_migrat/index.htm

Parliament of Australia: House of Representatives Standing Committee on Human and Family Services, Overseas Adoption in Australia: Report of the Inquiry into Adoption of Children from Overseas, November 2005.  http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/House_of_Representatives_Committees?url=fhs/./adoption/report.htm  

Parliament of Australia: House of Representatives Standing Committee on Human and Family Services, Inquiry into the Impact of Illicit Drug Use on Families, September 2007. http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/House_of_Representatives_Committees?url=fhs/././illicitdrugs/index.htm  

Parliament of Australia: Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Forgotten Australians: A report on Australians who experienced institutional or out-of-home care as children, August 2004, (Commonwealth of Australia 2004) http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate_Committees?url=clac_ctte/completed_inquiries/2004-07/inst_care/index.htm

Parliament of Australia: Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Inquiry into the Implementation of the Recommendations of the Lost Innocents and Forgotten Australians Reports, June 2009. http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate_Committees?url=clac_ctte/completed_inquiries/2008-10/recs_lost_innocents_forgotten_aust_rpts/index.htm

Parliament of Australia: Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Commonwealth Contribution to former forced adoption policies and practices, February 2012. http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate_Committees?url=clac_ctte/completed_inquiries/2010-13/comm_contrib_former_forced_adoption/index.htm

Australian Human Rights Commission, Bringing Them Home: Report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families, April 1997. www.hreoc.gov.au/pdf/social_justice/bringing_them_home_report.pdf

Australian Human Rights Commission, Same-Sex: Same Entitlements Final Report (2007) (Australian Human Rights Commission, 2007) http://www.humanrights.gov.au/human_rights/samesex/report/index.html

Australian Government: Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs, 2010. Impact of past adoption practices: Summary of key issues from Australian research. A report to the Australian Government Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs by the Australian Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne: AIFS. http://www.fahcsia.gov.au/our-responsibilities/families-and-children/publications-articles/impact-of-past-adoption-practices-summary-of-key-issues-from-australian-research

Australian Government: Australian Institute of Family Studies. Kenny, P., Higgins, D., Soloff, C., Sweid, R. 2012. Past adoption experiences: National Research Study on the Service Response to Past Adoption Practices (AIFS Research Report 21, 2012) Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies.

Australian Government: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Adoptions Australia. Annual collection of adoption statistics, 1990. From 1997−98 these reports have been online at http://www.aihw.gov.au/adoptions-publications/

Australian Bureau of Statistics, WELSTAT (Australia), 1982−. Adoptions, Australia. Canberra: ABS.

Joint Committee on Inter-country Adoption, September 1986. Report to the Council of Social Welfare Ministers and the Minister for Immigration and Ethnic Affairs of the Joint Committee on Intercountry Adoption together with the Ministerial Response to the Report [the so-called national guidelines] [Canberra?: The Committee].

Commonwealth of Australia, 2006. Commonwealth Government Response [to the] House of Representatives Standing Committee on Family and Human Services’ Report Overseas Adoption in Australia. Canberra [online].

Commonwealth of Australia: Commonwealth-State Agreement for the continued operation of Australia’s intercountry adoption program (1998), renegotiated 2008. http://www.ag.gov.au/FamiliesAndMarriage/IntercountryAdoption/Documents/Program.pdf

 

States and Territories

ACT

Australia. Human Rights Commission, November 1986. Review of the A.C.T. Adoption of Children Ordinance, 1965. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service. http://trove.nla.gov.au/version/14642029

Australian Capital Territory. Adoption of Children Ordinance Review Committee, 1987. A.C.T. Adoption Legislation and Practice – Report of the Review Committee, [Canberra: The Committee]. http://trove.nla.gov.au/version/21773930

Australian Capital Territory: Department of Disability, Housing and Community Services, May 2006. A Better System for Children Without Parents to Care for Them: Discussion Paper on the Adoption Act 1993.  Canberra: Department of Disability, Housing and Community Services. http://trove.nla.gov.au/version/42273143

New South Wales

Parliament of New South Wales, Review of Adoption Policy and Practice Committee, December 1984. Review of Adoption Policy and Practice. [Sydney] N.S.W. : Govt. Printer, 1985. http://trove.nla.gov.au/version/21592086

Parliament of New South Wales: Legislative Council Standing Committee on Social Issues, December 2000. Releasing the Past: Adoption Practices 1950−1998. http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/parlment/committee.nsf/0/56e4e53dfa16a023ca256cfd002a63bc/%24FILE/Report.PDF

Government of New South Wales: Law Reform Commission, Report 69 (1992): Review of the Adoption Information Act 1990 http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lrc.nsf/pages/r69toc

Government of New South Wales: Law Reform Commission, Issues Paper 9 (1993): Review of the Adoption of Children Act 1965 (NSW), http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lrc.nsf/pages/IP9TOC

Government of New South Wales: Law Reform Commission, Report 69 (1992). Review of the Adoption Information Act 1990. http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lrc.nsf/pages/R81TOC

Government of New South Wales: Law Reform Commission, Research Report 6 (1997). Gray, C. Intercountry Adoption and Parent Support Groups, http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lrc.nsf/pages/RR6TOC

Government of New South Wales: Law Reform Commission, Research Report 7 (1997). Lock, J. The Aboriginal Child Placement Principle, http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lrc.nsf/pages/rr7toc

Government of New South Wales: Department of Child Welfare and Social Welfare, 1967. Adoption Services in New South Wales: Proceedings of a Seminar held on Friday, 3rd February, 1967.Sydney. http://trove.nla.gov.au/version/9955804

Government of New South Wales: Department of Youth and Community Services, NSW, 1985. Adoption, Options for Reform. [Sydney, N.S.W.]: Government Printer.

New South Wales, Adoption Legislation Review Committee, 1976. Adoption Legislation: Report of the Review Committee. Sydney.

Parliament of New South Wales: Legislative Council Standing Committee on Social Issues, 1989. (Iwanek, M.) Accessing Adoption Information. [Sydney]: The Council.

Government of New South Wales: Department of Youth and Community Services, 1985. Adoption: Options for Reform. Sydney: Government Printer.

Government of New South Wales: Department of Community Services, 2004. Intercountry Adoptions: A Reform Proposal for NSW [electronic resource]. Ashfield, NSW: Department of Community Services.

Northern Territory

Government of the Northern Territory: Department of Health and Community Services, [1987?]. Discussion Paper, NT Adoption of Children Act Review, 1989. [Darwin] : Dept. of Health and Community Services, [1987?]

Queensland

Government of Queensland: Department of Family and Community Services, 1995. Protective Services and Juvenile Justice: Statistical Information: Concepts and Definitions. Brisbane: Department of Family and Community Services, Statistical Services Branch.

Government of Queensland: Department of Families, [2002]. Adoption Legislation Review. Brisbane: Department of Families. http://www.communities.qld.gov.au/resources/childsafety/about-us/legislation/consult-paper.pdf

South Australia

Government of South Australia: Department of Community Welfare, November 1986. Adoption Policy and practice in South Australia – Report of the Review Committee. [Adelaide: Dept. for Community Welfare?]

Government of South Australia: Department for Families and Communities, Children Youth and Family Services, 2005. Review of Post-Adoption Support Services in South Australia. Adelaide: Department for Families and Communities.

Government of South Australia: [Department for Family and Community Services?]: Review Committee of the Adoption Act 1988, 1994. Review of the Adoption Act 1988, South Australia. Adelaide: [Department for Family and Community Services?].

[Australia]: National Bioethics Consultative Committee, 1989. Access to Information: An Analogy Between Adoption and the Use of Gamete Donation. Adelaide: National Bioethics Consultative Committee.

[Australia]: National Bioethics Consultative Committee, 1990. Discussion Paper on Surrogacy 2: Implementation. Progress report prepared for the Australian Health Ministers’ Conference. Adelaide: National Bioethics Consultative Committee.

Tasmania

Bayes, H. April 1993. ‘Intercountry Adoption in Tasmania’. Report o the Ministerial Review of Intercountry Adoption.

Government of Tasmania: Department of Community and Health Services, 1996. Cunningham, Ann, Background Paper for the Minister of Community and Health Services on Issues Relating to Historical Adoption Practices in Tasmania. Hobart: Department of Community and Health Services.

Parliament of Tasmania, Joint Select Committee, 1999. Adoption and Related Services 1950−1988. http://www.parliament.tas.gov.au/Ctee/reports/adopt.pdf.

Report of the Interdepartmental Committee on Adoption Legislation Review, October 1986.

Tasmania: Law Reform Institute, 2003. Adoption by Same Sex Couples. (Final reports nos. 2 [Claire Buxton] and 4 [Kate Warner]). Hobart: Tasmanian Law Reform Institute.

Ferguson, M., Fry, D., Powell, G., Smith, L. 2003. Adoption by Same Sex Couples: Final Report. Launceston: Tasmanian Family Institute.

Victoria

Australia: Social Welfare Commission, June 1975. Graeme Gregory, Simone Kyatt and Katharine Lancaster, Intercountry Adoption: Report to the Australian Government Social Welfare Commission on the progress, achievements and future of the Intercountry Adoption Sub-Committee of the Victorian Adoption Conference. Melbourne: The Sub-committee.   

Government of Victoria: Department of Community Welfare Services: Adoption Legislation Review Committee, 1983. [Davey, W. et al] Report. Melbourne: Victorian Government Printing Office, on behalf of the Dept. of Community Welfare Services.

Government of Victoria: Department of Human Services, 1997. Regulatory Impact Statement: Proposed Adoption Regulations 1997. Melbourne: Department of Human Services.

Government of Victoria: Department of Human Services, 2007. [Jaguar Consulting P/L], Regulatory Impact Statement: Adoption Regulations 2008. Melbourne: Department of Human Services. http://www.vcec.vic.gov.au/CA256EAF001C7B21/WebObj/AdoptionRegulations2008RIS/$File/Adoption%20Regulations%202008%20RIS.pdf

Government of Victoria: The Ombudsman, 1989. Report of the Investigation of Administrative Action Taken by the Department of Community Services Victoria in Relation to the Removal and Further Placement of an Inter-Country Adoptive Child, September 1989, Issue 71 of parliamentary papers. Melbourne: The Ombudsman.

Government of Victoria: Victorian Law Reform Commission, February 2007. Assisted Reproduction and Adoption: Final Report. Melbourne: The Commission. http://www.lawreform.vic.gov.au/sites/default/files/ART%20%26%20Adoption%20Report%20FINAL.pdf

Parliament of Victoria: Legislative Assembly: Statute Law Revision Committee, 1978. , Report from the Statute Law Revision Committee upon Access to Information Concerning Adoptions together with Extracts from the Proceedings of the Committee and an Appendix, Parliamentary paper No 10 of 1978. Melbourne: Government Printer.

 [Victorian] Family and Children’s Services Council, October 1989. [Fogarty, Mr Justice J. F., K. Sanders and M. Webster] A Review of the Intercountry Adoption Service in Victoria. Melbourne: Family and Children’s Services Council.

[Victorian] Family and Children’s Services Council, 1991. [Fogarty, Mr Justice J. F.] The Inter-Country Adoption Service in Victoria: A Follow Up Review. Melbourne: Victorian Family and Children’s Services Council.

Western Australia

Government of W.A.: Department of Child Protection, December 2008. Consultation Paper: Permanency Planning in Western Australia .[Perth: The Department].  http://www.dcp.wa.gov.au/Resources/Documents/Policies%20and%20Frameworks/Permanency%20Planning%20Consultation%20Paper%202008.pdf

Government of W.A.: Department for Community Services, February 1991. Adoption Legislation Review Committee, A new approach to adoption – Final Report. [Perth, W.A.: The Committee].

 Government of W.A.: Department for Family and Children’s Services, 1997. Legislation Review Committee, Adoption Legislative Review Adoption Act (1994): Final Report. Perth, WA: Department for Family and Children’s Services. http://www.aihw.gov.au/closingthegap/resources/item.cfm?item_id=1095&group_type=BB&group_id=1&q=&start=517

Parliament of Western Australia: Legislative Assembly: Select Committee into the Adoption of Children Amendment Bill 1983, 1984. [Barnett, M.], Report of the Select Committee of the Legislative Assembly appointed to enquire into the Adoption of Children Amendment Bill, 1983. Perth: The Committee.

Parliament of Western Australia: Legislative Council: Standing Committee on Legislation, September 1994. [Tomlinson, D.], Twenty-seventh report of the Standing Committee on Legislation in relation to the Adoption Act 1994. Perth: The Committee.

Parliament of Western Australia: Legislative Council: Standing Committee on Legislation, 2002. [Hon. Jon Ford], Report of the Standing Committee on Legislation in Relation to the Child Support (Adoption of Laws) Amendment Bill 2001. Perth: Legislative Council.

Parliament of Western Australia: Adoption Act Legislative Review Committee, May 2007. Review of the Adoption Act 1994. http://www.parliament.wa.gov.au/publications/tabledpapers.nsf/displaypaper/3712727a9386bd8815181fdfc82572f800281183/$file/review+of+the+adoption+act+1994.pdf

 

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Publications

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 1993 – . Adoptions Australia. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Individual Editions:

Wilkinson, K., Angus, G., 1993. Adoptions Australia 1990-1991. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 1993. Adoptions Australia 1990-1991: State and Territory Tables. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

Angus, G., Wilkinson, K., Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 1994. Adoptions Australia 1991-1992. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Zabar, P., Angus, G., Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 1994.  Adoptions Australia 1992-1993. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Zabar, P., Angus, G., 1995. Adoptions Australia 1993-1994. Canberra:  Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

Angus, G., and Golley, L., Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 1995. Children Under Care and Protection Orders Australia 1993-94. Child Welfare Series No 12. Canberra: AGPS.

Angus, G., Golley, L., Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 1996. Adoptions Australia 1994-95. Child Welfare Series No 14. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 1996. Adoptions Australia 1994-1995: State and Territory Tables. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

Bently, R., Broadbent, A., Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 1997. Adoptions Australia 1995-1996.Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 1998, Adoptions Australia 1996-1997. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 1999, Adoptions Australia 1997-1998. Child Welfare Series, Cat no. CWS 10. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. http://www.aihw.gov.au/publications/cws/aa97-8/aa97-8-c00.pdf

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2000, Adoptions Australia 1998-1999. Child Welfare Series, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Cat no. CWS 10, Canberra. http://www.aihw.gov.au/publications/cws/aa98-9/aa98-9-c00.pdf

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2001, Adoptions Australia 1999-2000. Child Welfare Series no. 26, Cat no. CWS 12. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. http://www.aihw.gov.au/publications/cws/aa99-00/aa99-00.pdf

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2002, Adoptions Australia 2000-2001. Child Welfare Series no. 28, Cat no. CWS 15. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. http://www.aihw.gov.au/publications/cws/aa00-01/aa00-01.pdf

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2002, Adoptions Australia 2001-2002. Child Welfare Series no. 30, Cat no. CWS 18. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. http://www.aihw.gov.au/publications/cws/aa01-02/aa01-02.pdf

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2002, Adoptions in Australia down again. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2003, Adoptions Australia 2002-2003. Child Welfare Series no. 33, Cat no. CWS 21. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. http://www.aihw.gov.au/publications/cws/aa02-03/aa02-03.pdf

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2004, Adoptions Australia 2003-2004. Child Welfare Series, Cat no. CWS. Canberra:  Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2005, Adoptions Australia 2004-2005. Child Welfare Series no. 37, Cat no. CWS 25. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. http://www.aihw.gov.au/publications/cws/aa04-05/aa04-05.pdf

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2006, Adoptions Australia 2005-2006. Child Welfare Series no. 39, Cat no. CWS 27, Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. http://www.aihw.gov.au/publications/cws/aa05-06/aa05-06.pdf

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2008, Adoptions Australia 2006-2007. Child Welfare Series no. 44, Cat. no. CWS 32, Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.  http://www.aihw.gov.au/publications/cws/aa06-07/aa06-07.pdf

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2009, Adoptions Australia 2007-2008. Child Welfare Series no. 46, Cat no. CWS 34. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. http://www.aihw.gov.au/publications/cws/aa07-08/aa07-08.pdf

 

Launch and reviews of the Market in Babies

The Market in Babies: Stories of Australian Adoption, published by Monash University Publishing, was launched on November 28th 2013, by Professor The Honourable Nahum Mushin.  The text of his speech is available here.

Thomas Graham reviewed the Market in Babies in June 2014; his review is here.

 

 

 

Queensland Adoption Records

Department of Child Safety

Adoption is the transfer, generally by order of a court, of all parental rights and obligations from the birth parent(s) to the adoptive parent(s). Legal adoption was first introduced in 1928, but numbers of adoptions in Australia have fallen in recent decades. The reasons for the decline are mainly related to social and legal factors, increased fertility control and the advent of welfare support for sole parents. There has also been a reduction in the adoption of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. The introduction of the Aboriginal Child Placement Principle has meant the majority of Indigenous children are adopted by Indigenous families.

Queensland’s adoption rates peaked in the 1960s and 1970s, with over 6,000 babies adopted in one four-year period. Under Queensland law, adoption transfers the legal rights and responsibilities of parenthood from a child’s birth parents to his or her adoptive parents. The Adoption of Children Act 1964 and the Adoption of Children Regulation 1999, under review in 2005, provide the legal basis for adoption in Queensland. The Department of Child Safety is the sole agency with authority to arrange adoptions in Queensland and is responsible for administering the Act and its Regulations. Under the current legislation, children who are adopted and parents who consent to their child’s adoption can receive identifying information about each other once the adopted person reaches eighteen years of age.

Two programs, the General Children’s Adoption Program and the Special Needs Children’s Adoption Program, cover adoptive placements. Children requiring placement under the General Children’s Adoption Program are aged from birth to two years of age. Children requiring placement under the Special Needs Children’s Adoption Program include children with physical and/or intellectual disabilities, medical conditions, older children, and children from particular cultural backgrounds.

As the Bringing Them Home report noted, Aboriginal people have a different attitude to adoption than that of Torres Strait Islanders.

It is commonly recognised by the community that the adoption of Aboriginal children is alien to traditional Aboriginal child-rearing practices. It is also acknowledged that in the past, numbers of Aboriginal children were removed from their families and adopted into white families.

Customary adoption is reported to occur in the islands of the Torres Strait, as elsewhere in the Pacific, and among Torres Strait Islander communities on the Australian mainland. It involves the permanent transfer of care responsibilities and is a `social arrangement’ which serves to entrench reciprocal obligations thereby contributing to social stability. Traditionally the chosen adoptive family was in the same `bloodline’ as the birth family. However, with `inter-racial’ marriage now more frequent, adoptive parent(s) may be related only by marriage. There is also a growing practice of giving a child to family friends rather than relatives. As in general Australian law, customary Torres Strait Islander adoption makes the child fully a member of the adoptive family (Ban 1993 page 4).

In the eyes of Australian law, customary adoptions are private adoptions. They are not prohibited and are not recognised as legal agreements. Adoption in Queensland is not controlled by court orders, but approved by the relevant government department. The policy of Aboriginal Child Placement Principle is acknowledged in Queensland, but the legislation does not specifically incorporate the principles of ACPP.

The Adoption of Children Act 1984 stipulates that the Director, who makes the adoption order, will place a child from any ethnic background with an adopter from a similar background, unless such an adopter is unavailable or the welfare and best interests of the child, in the Director’s opinion, would not be best served by adoption in a family of the same background (section 18A).

Furthermore, the Act does not require preference to be given to the child’s extended family, with further options in order being another person in the correct relationship to the child, another member of the child’s Indigenous community and, finally, another Indigenous family as the ACPP requires. Regulations made in 1988 direct attention to the ability of the prospective adoptive parents to `develop or maintain the child’s indigenous ethnic or cultural identity’ as one criterion for assessing the suitability of particular adoptive parents (Schedule 6).

Queensland departmental policy spells out the ACPP preferences in a way very similar to that of Western Australia. Unlike the WA policy, however, it specifically refers to adoption as raising issues distinct from child protection. Thus, in the case of a proposed relinquishment for adoption, the parent(s) is to be counselled by an Indigenous worker and counselling is to `explore alternatives to adoption, including family support, custody and guardianship options’. There is no provision for the involvement of Indigenous agencies.

The survey of Queensland welfare authorities commissioned by the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody found that the Aboriginal Child Placement Principle had not been fully or comprehensively implemented across Queensland due largely to the lack of proper monitoring. There was concern that some departmental officers were unaware of the policy (O’Connor 1990). In Queensland, the standard definition of an Indigenous person is used; meaning identification by the parent is substituted for self-identification of a baby or child.

An Indigenous agency may be consulted, but only where there is no parent or other relative to provide the identification. In light of the relinquishing parent’s right to confidentiality, this means that an Indigenous child will not be treated as such where the relinquishing parent does not identify as Indigenous herself or himself or does not identify the baby as such or where a non-Indigenous relinquishing parent does not notify the department that the child’s other parent is Aboriginal or a Torres Strait Islander.

The Queensland Department advised the Inquiry that,

… in the case of a child whose parents were not married to each other at the conception of the child, and in relation to whom there is no other guardian by virtue of s. 6 of the Act, the consent required for the adoption of the child is that of the birth mother. However, this is not to say that the birth father is not considered and consulted by the Department in relation to the custody and guardianship of the child. Wherever possible, the Department attempts to ascertain the identity of the birth father of the child, and what his wishes are in relation to the child’s future. The identity of the birth father is, however, often totally dependant on whether the birth mother wishes to, or will, identify him. Birth mothers are encouraged to discuss this with the birth father of their child.

Since 1 June 1991, legal changes meant adopted adults and birth parents may have access to identifying information and original/ amended birth certificates. Objections may be lodged to contact and/ or disclosure of identifying information. Non-identifying information from old records is available to adoptees, birth parents and adoptive parents. Further information and application forms are available from

Adoptions Services
Dept of Child Safety,
 
GPO Box 806 
Brisbane 4001 
Phone: (07) 3224 7415 (for referrals to accredited local adoption counsellors) 
Fax: (07) 3210 0350 
Email: adoption@families.qld.gov.au 

 

State Library of Queensland

The State Library of Queensland holds some resources for tracing parties to an adoption, including Searching in adoption: a guide designed to assist people who have been separated by adoption (PAM 362.73409945 1990). Another resource is Self search – a program for adult adopted persons: the Adoption Information Service Research Project 1990 by Susan Tabak (PAM 362.8298 1990)

 

Community and Personal Histories Unit of DATSIP

Department of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Policy (DATSIP) regulates access to government records of Indigenous policy. Legislation such as the Aboriginals and Protection and the Restriction of Sale of Opium Act 1897 and subsequent protection acts enabled past Queensland government departments and agencies to exercise wide-ranging control over Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples’ lives. In doing so the Government compiled large volumes of records about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples until about the mid 1980’s. Today these records are a valuable resource for establishing connections to family and traditional homelands. Community & Personal Histories facilitates access to the records for research into family and/or community history and other issues relating to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, such as proof of date of birth. All services provided by Community and Personal Histories are confidential and free of charge.

Contact details:
Community and Personal Histories Branch
Address: Floor 4, 75 William Street, Brisbane

Telephone:
1800 650 230 (toll-free within Australia, calls from mobile phones charged at applicable rates) 
(07) 3404 3622

Facsimile: 
(07) 3224 7304

 

Archival holdings

Queensland State Archives is custodian of the State’s largest and most significant collection of government records. These include the following departmental files

  • Health and Home Affairs Department, State Children’s Department (1935-1963). The State Children’s Department was established to provide care, management and control of orphaned, abandoned and convicted children. The State was divided into 3 Districts: the Southern District (Southern Queensland from Bundaberg to the NSW Border) with a head office in Brisbane; Central District (Mackay to Miriam Vale on the Coast and West along the Central Line) with a district office at Rockhampton; and Northern District (North Queensland from the north and West of Townsville) with a district office at Townsville. In providing Child Welfare, the State Children’s Department had a close working relationship with the Health and Home Affairs Department, Welfare and Guidance Service.
  • A/27291 – The Adoption of Children Act Amendment Bill (1941)
  • SRS 505-1-526 – ADMINISTRATION – GENERAL – ADOPTION OF COLOURED CHILDREN BY WHITES (1945-1982)
  • RSI 15058-1-1018 – Dauan – Adoption – General (1948-1952)
  • SRS 4354-1-184 (A/70008) – Council for the Advancement of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders (QLD) – Miscellaneous correspondence on adoption, repatriation etc. (1963)
  • QA00632 – Labour and Industry Department, State Children’s Department (1963-1966)
  • SRS 145-6-387 – A Bill to amend the Adoption of Children Act 1964-1981 and the Adoption of Children Act Amendment Act 1983, 1985 (1957-1985)
  • SRS 145-6-103 – Review of the Adoption of Children Act, 1964. Second draft 1981 Queensland (1957-1985)
  • The Children’s Services Act 1965
  • SRS 4892 – This series consists of a card index to Aboriginal people issued with a permit to reside on an Aboriginal reserve. Information on the cards includes: surname, maiden name, given name, date and place of birth, sex, race, certificate number, date, marital status, community, mother’s name, father’s name, children’s names, form and reference numbers. Some cards contain adoption information. (1966-1983)
  • RSI 14938 – This file (file number 8G/26) contains mostly inter-departmental correspondence, radio messages, telegrams and other documents. This subject matter of the correspondence includes: taxation; travel arrangements and allowances; employment; leave entitlements; health; adoption; education allowances and marriage. As this file is that of a Commissioner of the Aboriginal and Islander Commission, it also contains documents relating to the general business of the Commission (1969-1979)
  • SRS 737 – Index to Cabinet Minutes. Many decisions relating to adoption have restricted access. (1970-1975)
  • SRS 142 – Cabinet Minutes (Decisions and submissions) – Most decisions relating to adoption are restricted (1970-1975)
  • RSI 14914 – These files contain confidential correspondence of the Aboriginal and Islander Affairs Department, Thursday Island, included are copies of letters sent and received, copies of radio messages and telegrams. The correspondence has been stamped or marked “confidential”. The contents of the correspondence relates primarily to issues affecting far north Queensland, Thursday Island and the Torres Strait Island region. The correspondence is mainly inter-departmental, also included is correspondence with other state government departments, the Federal Government, politicians and members of the public. Matters dealt with include: general administrative issues relating to the running of the Thursday Island Office, communities and reserves on the Torres Strait Islands. These issues include the adoption of children, trust accounts held for Torres Strait Islanders by the department, employment and wages, education and health services. (1971-1974)
  • There are also a large number of records of Applications for Adoption Orders in Torres Strait.
  • SRS 145-7-12 – Adoption of Children Act and Another Act Amendment Bill (1986)
  • QA 09719 – Family Services Department. The Family Services Department was created from the former Family and Youth Services Department in 1987. This department was responsible for the provision of disability services, intellectual handicap services, young offenders rehabilitation services, alternative care services, adoption, emergency and crisis services, family and individual support services and child care services. In addition to this, under the Children’s Services Act 1965, the Family Services Department was responsible for providing protective services for children such as the investigation of notifications of children at risk; securing the safety of children through supportive services; and, if necessary, applying through the children’s court for a safe and secure environment. The department also provided grants and subsidies to community groups. Functions included adoptions and orphanages. Family Services was amalgamated with the departments of Community Services and the Office of Ethnic Affairs to form the Department of Family Services and Aboriginal and Islander Affairs in 1989.
  • QA 02568 – Family Services and Aboriginal and Islander Affairs Department. (1989-1996)
  • SRS 593-1-1088 – Adoption Privacy Protection Group (1991-1993)
  • SRS 917-3-193 – Adoption of Children Act 1964 (1992-1994)
  • SRS 917-1-21 – Adoption of Children Amendment Regulation (1993)
  • SRS 917-1-7 – Adoption of Children Amendment Regulation (1996)
  • SRS 917-3-192 – Adoption of Children Act 1964 (1998)
  • In 2003, the Queensland Government announced the first major review of adoption laws since the 1960’s. At the time, Queensland was the only State or Territory in Australia not to have recently reviewed adoption laws. The review recommended changes with a greater emphasis upon the needs and best interests of children affected by adoption. The Government considered submissions made by various groups.

 

South Australian Adoption Records

South Australian Statutes

Adoption of Children Act, No. 1692, 1925

Among other things, this Act provided:

  • regulation of to whom a female or male child may be adopted respectively (3)
  • that the child be under the age of 15 (2)
  • that applicants be ”fit and proper persons” (5)
  •  that a child over the age of 12 consents to the adoption(5)
  • that the parents consent to the adoption (6)
  • that  if parents are dead that that any person or body with legal custody must consent (6)
  • that except for a husband and a wife, no child shall be adopted by more than one person (9)
  • that after adoption the child “shall for all purposes…be deemed in law to be the child born in lawful wedlock of the adopting parents…and thereby terminate all the rights and legal responsibilities” of the natural parents (12)
  • for the temporary adoption of deserted children by the manager of any benevolent or other institution established in connection with any religious denomination  (15)

Adoption of Children Amendment Act, No. 2011, 1931

Among other things, this Act provided:

  • That where any person is the natural or adopted parent of any child, the spouse of such person may make an application for adoption of the child. (2)
  • that consent of the above of the spouse be given in evidence
  • that section 5 of the principal Act is amended (1925): that the child be under 21 years (6)
  • the court question the child in private, and no parent or guardian of the child, or any application for the adoption be present (6)
  • that an Adopted Children’s Register be established and maintained (10)
  • that any person shall be entitled to search the above register and to have an extract of any entry upon payment of a fee (7)
  • that in addition the  Adopted Children Register and the index, the Registrar-General should keep other registers, indices and books that make traceable any entry in the Register of Births which has been marked “Adopted”  and any corresponding  entry in the Adopted Children Register. But these should not be made available for open, public inspection to anyone except by order of the Supreme Court or to the adopted child who has reached the age of 17 years and to whom such information, copy, or extracts relates.

Adoption of Children Amendment Act, 1940 No. 4, 1940

This Act provided:

  • That where an adoption order is varied or reversed communication alteration should be made to the Adopted Children Register (2)

Adoption of Children Amendment Act, 1943 No. 18, 1943

This Act provided for reciprocal arrangements for transmission of adoption orders:

  • The responsible minister may make arrangements for the transmission to him of copies of orders of adoption made in any State or Territory of children born in South Australia and for the transmission by him of orders of adoption made in South Australia of children of any State or Territory (4)

Adoption of Children Act 1966-1967, No. 12, 1967

Among other things, this Act provided:

  • that “child” refers to a person under the age of 18 years (4)
  • penalty for natural parents or guardians who take, lead, entice or decoy a child away, or detains with the intent to deprive adoptive parents of possession of the child (42)
  • penalty for person who harbours a child on behalf of a person who takes, leads, entices or decoys a child away (43)
  • penalty for a person who makes, gives, receives payment or reward for  consideration in regard to an adoption
  • penalty for a person who publishes in a newspaper or periodical, or by means of broadcasting, television or public exhibition, any advertisement regarding the adoption of a child born or unborn (45)
  • penalty for making unauthorised arrangements for adoptions (47)
  • Adopted Children Register to be maintained
  • A charitable organisation conducting negotiations and making arrangements for the adoption of children may apply in writing to the Director for approval as a private adoption agency.
  • “Director” means Director of Social Welfare under the Social Welfare Act 1926-1965
  • hearings to held in camera
  • a child or other person may be asked to leave the room

Adoption Act 1988 No. 90, 1988

Among other things, this Act provided:

  • that The South Australian Adoption Panel be established (5)
  • for adopted adults, birth parents and relatives of birth parents to receive identifying information about each other. It also allows adopted people and birth parents, where the adoption was legalised prior to 1988, the right to restrict the release of information. (27)

The Adoption Act 1988 and Regulations

Other Acts that address aspects of adoption

The Freedom of Information Act 1991 – South Australia

State Records

The records of the State Children’s Department and its various incarnations are interesting for their references to early adoption policy and practice of state wards in South Australia. These records are open up until the mid-1920s and are available to view at the Gepps Cross Repository of State Records of South Australia.

Some records of the State Children’s Council (GRG27) and Destitute Board (GRG28) are incorporated in the Social Welfare Department Group (GRG29). In 1927 the Children’s Welfare and Public Relief Department took over function of the State Children’s Council and Destitute Board and continued some of the series as a part of its own records. On 26 January 1966 the name Children’s Welfare and Public Relief Department was changed to Social Welfare Department.

Access

As a general rule, government records less than 30 years old are not available to readers without the permission of the department concerned. However, as some records in this group contain confidential information of a personal nature, special restrictions have been placed on them. Many of the records in this group have an 80 year embargo. For access to any files less than 80 years old in these series, application should be made to the Archivist, who has been authorised by the Director of Social Welfare to examine files to see if their contents are confidential. These restrictions apply to everyone except authorised officers of the Social Welfare Department, who must produce written authority to use or borrow restricted records. 

Note: For access to adoption records, contact Family and Adoption Service, 9th Floor, Citi Centre, Hindmarsh Square, Adelaide SA 5000, (08) 8226 6694
www.adoptions.sa.gov.au 

Series date range Public access Series ID Series Title
1862-c1921 open GRG27/5 Ledgers of children boarded out
1862-1908 open GRG27/6 Index to ledgers of children boarded out
1877-1878 open GRS/6644 Letters of reference
1879-1884 open GRG27/33 Minutes of the Boarding out Society
1881-1891 open GRG27/19 Reports of inspectress of licensed foster mothers and wetnurses
1886-1910 open GRG27/17 Register of licensed foster mothers
1887-1926 open GRG27/31 Printed copies of annual reports of the State Children’s Council (also available as SA Parliamentary Papers)
1887-1927 part open GRG27/1 Correspondence files of the State Children’s Department. Includes letters from children complaining about their circumstances. (Take plenty of tissues.)
1898 open GRG27/23 Indenture for the adoption of Albert Edward Howe
1899-1910 open   Register of applicants for foster mothers licenses considered by the State Children’s Council
1902-1910 open   Register of children placed with licensed foster mothers
1911 open GRG2727/30 Printed brochure outlining the administration of the State Children’s Council
1855-1867 open GRG28/6 Ledger of children boarded out
1862-1892 open GRG28/7 Register of children apprenticed, adopted or licensed to service
1900-1922 open GRG28/14 Reports on applicants for admission to the Lying-in Home
C1920 open GRG28/28 Printed specimen of form of agreement of undertaking with the Lying-in Home
1886-1965 part open GRG29/124 Minutes of the State Children’s Council and the Children’s Welfare and Public Relief Board
1895-1900 open GRG29/171 Minutes of the Boarding-out Committee of the State Children’s Council
1930-1937 restricted GRG29/2 Weekly reports of the Chairman, Children’s welfare and Public Relief Board
1930-1933 restricted GRG29/17 Reports of Visiting Officer, Relief Branch to the Chairman, Children’s welfare and Public Relief Board
1938-1941 restricted GRG2978 Rough register of children available for adoption
1940-1945 restricted GRG29/95 Report and correspondence on war evacuee children from the United Kingdom
C1915 restricted (still?) GRS/914 Adoption files; Children, Youth and Family Services
1926 available 2006? GRS/7111 Adoption files (Adelaide); Youth Court of South Australia
1926 available 2006? GRS/7112 Adoption files (country); Youth Court of South Australia
1926 available 2006? GRG/8220 Adoption register of documents filed at Port Adelaide Court
1927 available 2007? GRG29/6 Correspondence files of the Social Welfare Department
1869-1969 part open GRG29/162 Alphabetical lists of children
1880-1932 open GRG/2915 Register of infants born in the Destitute Asylum
1910-1940 restricted
early stuff could be open by now
GRG29/93 Reports and correspondence concerning foster mothers and applicants
1911-1916 open GRG29/169 Minutes of Ladies’ Committee of State Children’s Council
C1920-c1950 part open GRG29/123 Files relating to children under departmental supervision
1921-1939 part open GRG29/73 Daily returns of children at the industrial schools
1927-1928 restricted
available 2007?
GRG29/71 Returns of children in the care of the Department
1943-1973 undetermined GRG29/142 Children’s files
1948-1964 open GRG29/125 Conference papers and correspondence on immigration of minors
1953-1956 undetermined GRG29/79 Notification of illegitimate births
1955-1975 open GRG29/155 Women’s Guild minutes, correspondence etc.
1959-1970 undetermined GRG29/137 Licensed foster mother files
1968-1970 undetermined GRG29/167 Correspondence files

Review Of Post Adoption Support Services

July 2005

In February 2005, the Department for Families and Communities (DFC) commissioned a Review of Post Adoption Services in South Australia. The aim of this review was to develop the best service model for South Australia to provide cost efficient service in post adoption support. The review and the relevant documents are available athttp://www.adoptions.sa.gov.au

Children’s Homes in South Australia

Karen George, Finding your way: A guide to records of children’s homes in South Australia, (Nunkuwarrin Yunti, S.A. Inc., 2005)
Download in PDF form at SA Link-Up Website: http://www.salinkup.com.au/

Oral Histories

There is precious little available in the way of oral histories that deal with adoption. The following interviews were conducted as a part of broader projects and refer to adoption. Since adoption is mentioned in the introduction, it may be possible that the interviewee went into at least some detail.

Many of these interviews were conducted some time ago. While in some cases death dates are not given, I expect at least some of the interviewees are no longer with us. SL

State Library of South Australia Archival database

Available at www.slsa.sa.gov.au

Copies may be made for research and study. Publication only with written permission from the SLSA

      • Interview with Pam McLaren (1912-)
      • Interview with Lesley Cox (1918-2003)
      • Interview with Nancy Gemmell (1917-)
      • Interview with Gwen Smoker (1958-)
      • Interview with Edna Frost (1904-)
      • Interview with Lilian Johnston (d 1984)

Interview with Pam McLaren (1912- ) [sound recording]

Interviewer: Allison Murchi
Recorded on 29 July 2000

Summary:
Pam McLaren was born in South Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia and was one of 10 children. Her father was a doctor at the Mental Hospital located in the Adelaide Botanic Gardens. She speaks about growing up in Angas Street in the city, travelling overseas in her early 20s; moving to Walkerville; training at the Kindergarten Union during the Depression; opening a kindergarten in her own home; adopting a child as a single woman during the Second World War and experiencing prejudice as a single mother; her daughter contracting polio; and the Walkerville district including the House of Mercy for unmarried mothers.

Project: Walkerville Public Library Oral History Collection

Format: sound cassette
Group no: OH 401/15
Quantity: 1 hour
Use copies: Not currently available

Interview with Lesley Cox (1918-2003) [sound recording]

Interviewer: Catherine Murphy
Recorded on 21 October 1998

Summary: 
Lesley Cox was interviewed as part of the Honoured Women Oral History Project. The interview commences with her family background and her parents’ musical ability…There follows a description of her schooldays at Highclere, a small private school and kindergarten in Norwood, at Marryatville Primary School, Rose Park School and Presbyterian Girl’s College. Some observations are made on school and domestic life during the Depression; her working life as a shorthand typist and later, as assistant to solicitor Basil Harford; her marriage to her first cousin, Roderic Cuthbertson, and their adoption of three children, twin boys, Michael and Jeremy and a daughter, Heather. Brief comment is made on the Kate Cocks Home (see K. George, Finding Your Way referred to below) in the early 1950’s…Lesley Cox became a lecturer at the Kindergarten Teachers’ College, and taught School of Education students at Flinders University. Descriptions are given of drama performances she organised to raise funds for charity, including 22 performances of the Water Babies in the Tivoli Theatre (1979), with 1000 children involved, for the International Year of the Child. Details are given of choreography and costuming for the Down Syndrome Debutante Ball, and the Sacred Dance created for the Festival of Arts 1962. She describes the publishing of her many books, playscripts and music cassettes. Lesley Cox. was awarded an OAM in 1998 for her work with children, her contributions to teaching and her extensive fundraising for charity

Project: The Honoured Women Oral History Project
Format: sound cassette
Group no.: OH 505/1
Quantity: 2 hours 50 minutes
Use copies: Available on cassette (3 tapes)
Documentation: Full transcript available (51 pages)

Interview with Nancy Gemmell (1917-)[sound recording]

Interviewer: Rob Linn
Recorded on 26 November 1998

Nancy Gemmell was awarded the Medal of the Order of Australia (OAM) in the Queen’s Birthday honours list, 1994, for service to conservation, local history and the community. Nancy Gemmell, nee Hambidge, was born in Adelaide, South Australia on 15 May 1917, and lived her early life at Mount Lofty. Her father was Clive Melville Hambidge, Surveyor General, and her grandparents, John and Cecile Hambidge, were Burnside pioneers. Her mother’s family, Pizey, were well known artists and her father had three Aunts, Helen, Alice and Millie Hambridge who were also artists. She attended the School of Art and in her second year studied under Ivor Hele. During the war she worked for the Red Cross and taught handicraft at Daws Road Repat. In 1947 she married Alan Gemmell and moved to Strathalbyn. In 1952 they adopted their son Richard.

Project: The Honoured Women Oral History Project
Format: sound cassette
Group no.: OH 505/4
Quantity: 1 hour 16 minutes
Use copies: Available on cassette (2 tapes)
Documentation: Full transcript available (26 pages)

Interview with Gwen Smoker (1958-) [sound recording]

Interviewer: Rosemary Willis
Recorded on 25 February 1994

Summary:
Gwen Smoker came to the Goodwood Orphanage, South Australia when she was about three years old, when her mother could not look after her. She lived there for the next 12 years. While Gwen recalls some aspects of orphanage life as a matter of survival, she also expresses appreciation of the values instilled in her of honesty, loyalty and respect. She learned something of family life from holidays spent with host families. One couple maintained contact and adopted her as a young adult.

Project: Goodwood Orphanage Oral History 
Format: sound cassette
Group no.: OH 201/8
Quantity: 1 hour 16 minutes
Use copies: Available on cassette (1 tape)
Documentation: Full transcript available (24 pages)

Interview with Edna Frost (1904-) [sound recording]

Interviewer: Beth M. Robertson
Recorded on 18 July 1986

Summary:
Edna Frost, nee Newbold, was born on the family’s wheat and sheep farm near Wauraltee on Yorke Peninsula. Her father was also a lay preacher in the Methodist Church and often was away all day on Sunday travelling between services. Edna was the fourth of five boisterous children; a sixth, her oldest sister, having been adopted by Edna’s father before this, his second marriage. In the latter stages of her schooling Edna, like her siblings, went to boarding school in Adelaide and she did not enjoy the experience. In 1920, four years after he had suffered a stroke, Edna’s father died and Edna left school to help her mother and brother with the home and farm. Three years later, when her brother married, Edna, her mother and youngest sister moved to live near an uncle in Salisbury. Edna attended Muirden College and worked briefly for a ‘so-called solicitor’ and then with the Co-op Building Society until her marriage to a commercial traveller in 1929. She had one son.

Project:  ‘S. A. Speaks': An Oral History of Life in South Australia before 1930
Format: sound cassette
Group no.: OH 1/41
Quantity: 3 hours
Use copies: Available on cassette (3 tapes)
Documentation: Full transcript available (52 pages)
Notes: Technical quality affected by a good deal of background noise including traffic, aeroplane, and voices. Associated material comprises one photograph.

Interview with Lilian Johnston (d 1984) [sound recording]

Interviewer: Anne Geddes
Recorded in July 1983
Summary:
Interviewer’s summary: Miss Johnston was a female factories inspector and then an adoptions officer in the Public Service
Project: Women Pioneers Oral History Project
Format: sound cassette
Group no.: PRG 727/2/2
Quantity: 2 hours 25 minutes
Use copies: Available on cassette (3 tapes)
Documentation: None currently available (Transcript, 44 pages, in production) this advice maybe out of date

 

 

  • Queensland Adoption Records

    Department of Child Safety Adoption is the transfer, generally by order of a court, of…

  • Victorian Adoption Records

    State Library of Victoria Collection Swanston St, Melbourne Collections: MS 10051 Victorian Children’s Aid Society…

  • Western Australian Holdings

    Adoption Acts, Parliamentary Debates State Archives State Library Issues papers, submissions, select committee reports State…

Victorian Adoption Records

State Library of Victoria Collection

Swanston St, Melbourne

Collections:

  • MS 10051
  • Victorian Children’s Aid Society
  • Period: 1893 – 1977
  • Extent: 15 Boxes, 38 V.
  • Description: laws, annual reports, minutes, financial records, case histories,
  • Court committals, fostering and adoption records of children under the care of the society, correspondence, published records, press cuttings and photos.
  • Access: Restricted
  • MS 13248
  • National Council for the Single Mother and her Child (Australia)
  • Period: 1970-1984
  • Extent: 14 Boxes
  • Description: correspondence, minutes, annual reports, financial records, press
  • Releases, newsletters.

Public Record Office Victoria

  • Series Title: Parliamentary Counsel Bill Files
  • Series Number: VPRS 10265
  • Unit Number: 90
  • Description: Adoption of Children, E.B 68
  • Period: 1916-1939
  • Access: Open
  • Series Title: Parliamentary Counsel Bill Files
  • Series Number: VPRS 10265
  • Unit Number: 515
  • Description: Adoption of Children
  • Period: 1940-1963
  • Access: Open
  • Series Title: Parliamentary Counsel Bill Files
  • Series Number: VPRS 10265
  • Unit Number: 600
  • Description: Adoption of Children; 1965 Rules
  • Period: 1964-65
  • Access: Open
  • Series Title: Parliamentary Counsel Bill Files
  • Series Number: VPRS 10265
  • Unit Number: 124
  • Description: Adoption of Children, E.B 95
  • Period: 1948-
  • Access: Open
  • Series Title: General Correspondence Files, Multiple Number System 1
  • Department of the Premier (also known as Premier’s Department, 1960 – 1982)
  • Agency Number: VA2717
  • Series Number: VPRS 7614
  • Period: 1967-1976
  • Description: Government files including Social Welfare, with adoption information
  • Access: Open
  • Series Title: Board Hearing Files
  • Industrial Relations Commission
  • Agency Number: VA1009
  • Series Number: VPRS 9600
  • Description: Insertion of Adoption Law Provisions
  • Period: 1981-1993
  • Access: Open
  • Series Title: Acts of Parliament
  • Legislative Assembly
  • Agency Number: VA2585
  • Series Number: VPRS 14558
  • Period: 1928-1958
  • Description: Act No. 3605 Adoption of Children Act 1928, Consolidated Act 1928; Act No. 4381 Adoption of Children 2nd Session – 32th Parliament (1936); Act No. 4903 Adoption of Children 3rd Session – 34th Parliament (1942); Act No. 5666 Adoption of Children (Amendment) – 1st Session – 39th Parliament (1953); Act No. 5851 Adoption of Children (Amendment) – 40th Parliament (1955); Act No. 6192 Adoption of Children Act 1958, Consolidated Acts 1958.
  • Access: Restricted
  • Agency: Child Welfare Department
  • Agency Number: VA 1467:
  • Series Title: Service Register – VPRS 6755
  • Period: 1921-1924
  • Description: Statutory Authority of the Department of Neglected Children and
  • Reformatory Schools to Place Neglected Children in Service
  • Access: Closed
  • Series Title: Child Migration Files – VPRS 10092
  • Period: 1947-1971
  • Description: Child Migration Files
  • Access: Closed
  • Series Title: Index Books to State Ward Registers – VPRS 6757
  • Period: 1864-1910
  • Description: Register of State Wards
  • Access: Open
  • Series Title:  Index to Crown Solicitors Opinion Books – VPRS 7774
  • Period: 1866-1929
  • Description: Crown Solicitors Opinions including on Adoption Orders
  • Access: Open
  • Series Title: Institutionalised Children’s Register – VPRS 5064
  • Period: 1937-1945
  • Description: A collection of information on a small number of children in state care
  • Access: Closed
  • Series Title: Children’s Overseas Reception Board Files – VPRS 10093
  • Period: 1940-1945
  • Description: Client files of children ‘evacuated’ to Australia from the UK during
  • WWII
  • Access: Closed
  • Series Title: Annual Reports – VPRS 5690
  • Unit : 1
  • Period: 1883-1888
  • Unit: 2
  • Period: 1889-1897
  • Unit: 3
  • Period: 1901-1909
  • Description: Department Annual Reports
  • Access: Open
  • Series Title: State Ward Case Files – VPRS 10071
  • Period: 1920-1981
  • Description: State Ward Files
  • Access: Closed
  • Series Title:
  • Personnel Files and Administration Policy Files – VPRS 10096
  • Period: 1922-1954
  • Description: Personnel and Administrative Policy Files
  • Access: Closed
  • Agency: Department of Industrial and Reform Schools
  • Agency Number 1466:
  • Series Title: Index Books to State Ward Registers
  • Series Number: VPRS 6757
  • Period: 1864-1910
  • Access: Open
  • Series Title: Index to Crown Solicitor’s Opinion Books
  • Series Number: VPRS 7773
  • Period: 1866-1960
  • Access: Open
  • Series Title: Crown Solicitor’s Opinion Books
  • Series Number: VPRS 7774
  • Period: 1866-1960
  • Access: Open
  • Series Title: Annual Reports
  • Series Number: VPRS 5690
  • Period: 1883-1909
  • Access: Open
  • Agency: Scrutiny of Acts and Regulations Committees
  • Agency Number: VA4000
  • Series Title: Committee Records
  • Series Number: VPRS 10977
  • Period: 1992-2004
  • Description: Adoption (Amendment) Regulations 2002 Statutory Rule No.
    76/2002; Adoption (Inter-country Fees) Regulations 2002, Statutory Rule No.
    128/2003;
  • Access: Restricted
  • Agency: Victorian Multicultural Commission
  • Agency Number: VA 1029
  • Series Title: General Correspondence Files
  • Series Number: VPRS 11790
  • Unit Number: 87
  • Period: 1983-1993 (with contents from 1947)
  • Description: Overseas Adoption
  • Access: Open
  • Agency: Victorian Multicultural Commission
  • Agency Number: VA 1029
  • Series Title: General Correspondence Files
  • Series Number: VPRS 11790
  • Unit Number: 55
  • Description: Inter-Country Adoption Programmes
  • Access: Open
 

 

Western Australian Holdings

  1. Adoption Acts, Parliamentary Debates
  2. State Archives
    1. State Library
      • Issues papers, submissions, select committee reports
    2. State Records Office of Western Australia
      • Agencies
    3. State Library
      • Collections
      • Oral Histories
      • Video
      • Printed primary sources
      • Pamphlets, newsletters, annual reports
      • Newspaper and magazine articles
      • Secondary sources
      • First person writing
      • Books, papers, theses
  3. Adoption services providers
  4. Support services
  5. Holdings at University of Western Australia

Adoption Acts – Western Australia

On the whole, legislation in Western Australia has become more transparent, while at the same time has lost some of its flexibility.

Adoption of Children Act, 1896 – 1981 (ACA 1896)

Little comment recorded in: 
Parliamentary Debates, Vol. IX, 1896.
1st reading 14th July 1896 (p.44)
Bill passed 20 September 1896 (p.465)
It was believed that people were abandoning young children to carers; then trying to reclaim them when they were of an age to earn money.

Adoption of Children Amendment Act, 1985 (ACAA 1985)

Adoption Act 1994
An Act to make provision for the adoption of persons and for the parties to adoptions and their relatives to have access to information about the parties, to repeal the Adoption of Children Act 1986, and for related purposes.

The Adoption Rules 1995
Adoption Regulations 1995

A review of the Adoption Act 1994 will begin in 2006, possibly leading to amendments to the Act by approximately 2009.

Significant Changes in the Western Australian Adoption of Children Act 1896 Concerning Disclosures of Information and Change of Name
(Taken from A New Approach to Adoption: Final report, 1991)

1896
Original Act did not specifically provide for any secrecy of records. Adopted children retained their original names and simply added the adoptive parents surnames, thus creating ‘double barrelled’ surnames
1921
Major amendment to introduce secrecy. Adopting parents objected to child retaining original surname. Amendment meant that adopted child assumed the adoptive parents surname but kept his/her original first (Christian) names. Adoption records only open to inspection with permission of the Master of the Supreme Court
1926
Legislation to amend Adoption Act to prevent adopted child from obtaining original birth certificate. Up until then a new registration was not made on adoption – apparently a notation of the adoption was just made on the original birth entry. Hence on applying for a birth certificate adopted children might suddenly realise that they were not the children of those who adopted them, and whom they had always regarded as their parents.
1945
Amendment to prevent persons born in WA, but adopted in another state, from obtaining their original birth certificate (and hence details of their “natural” parents). Reciprocal arrangements made with other States and Territories to have original birth record closed on granting of an adoption in any state.
1949
  1. Requirement of original Act that children 12 years and over consent to their own adoption amended so that consent could be dispensed with in special circumstances – the fact that a child was not aware of its adoptive status was specifically mentioned as an example of “special circumstances”.
  2. Provision made to allow complete change of name of adopted persons     name on adoption. Prior to this only the surname was changed by adoption although it was possible for the first names to be changed through use of the Change of Name regulations.
  3. Original Birth Registration automatically changed on adoption – a copy of the Order automatically sent to the Registrar-General for this purpose. Prior to 1949 the original birth registration was only altered if application was made by the adoptive parents on their initiative. Registrar-General’s Record specifically stated to be not available to the general public.
1953
Amendment allowing registration of the birth of a child adopted in WA but born elsewhere. Up until then such a child could only obtain a birth certificate from its country of birth, and if that country did not have reciprocal arrangements with WA (as per 1945 amendment), that birth certificate would be in the child’s original name – not the adoptive name. An adopted child to whom the above applied could therefore find its original name and the fact (where applicable) that he/she was adopted.
1970
New Adoption of Children Rules amended the form 14 “Application for Order of Adoption” so that the details of the relinquishing parents were not included. Before that the forms that ALL adoptive parents signed had this information included although it was often “covered up” or left until after the adoptive parents signed.
Only adoptive parents who adopted privately could routinely become aware of the relinquishing parent’s name and address.
1980
Amendment to allow child over 12 or over to retain original surname on          adoption if he/she desires this and the Judge considers it to be in the    child’s interest.
1985
An adult adopted person may apply in writing for an extract of a certified copy of their original birth entry, provided that person has attended a counselling session with an approved counsellor and there is no entry on the Adoption Contact Register to the effect that the birth parent(s) does not wish to have contact with that person.
1994
Adoption Act 1994 Principles: 
  1. The paramount considerations to be taken into account in the administration of this Act are:
    1. the welfare and best interests of a child who is an adoptee or a prospective adoptee;
    2. the principle that adoption is a service for a child who is an adoptee or a prospective adoptee; and
    3. the adoption of a child should occur only in circumstances where there is no other appropriate alternative for the child.
  2. It is acknowledged that adoption is not part of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Island culture and that therefore the adoption of a child who is an Aboriginal person or a Torres Strait Islander should occur only in circumstances where there is no other appropriate alternative for that child.

Open adoption means that the three main parties to an adoption; the child, the birth parents and adoptive parents are aware of each other’s identity.

2005
Changes to Information Vetoes for adoptions that occurred in the past
(Department for Community Development website)
In the past, access to identifying information about the people involved in an adoption was able to be restricted, through the lodgement of information vetoes, which could be lodged by birth parents, the adoptive parents or the adoptee. As a result of ‘open adoption’ where identifying information is given to all parties, changes have been made regarding vetoes.
From June 1 2005 the effects of Information Vetoes ceased. Contact Vetoes are to continue.

State Archives

State Library of Western Australia

  • Alexander Library Building
  • Perth Cultural Centre
  • Perth WA 6000
  • Phone: 08 9427 3111
  • Fax: 08 9427 3256
  • Email: info@liswa.wa.gov.au

The J S Battye Library is part of the State Library. It specifically collects material relating to Western Australia’s history. A large percentage of the documents listed below must be retrieved by library staff from the library “Stack”. If the call number only is given below, the document is easily available.

Issues Papers, Submissions, Select Committee Reports

(In chronological order)

A System of Review and Planning for Children in Limbo: Report to the Hon. Minister for Community/Backlog Procedures Committee
Western Australia Backlog   Procedures Committee, Department for Community Welfare, 1982.
Q362.73 WES
Submission to the Minister for Youth and Community Services, WA Parliament Regarding Proposed Changes to the Adoption of Children Act and Adoption Practice,
Submitted by the Association of Relinquishing Mothers (WA Branch),
6 June 1983.
Q346.9410178 ASS,
3rd Floor, Stack, Ask staff
Report of the Select Committee of the Legislative Assembly Appointed to Enquire into the Adoption of Children Amendment Bill, 1984.
Presented by Mr Michael Barnett MLA, Thursday 11 October 1984
Q346.941078 WES
38 Written submissions received from:
Family Law Practitioners Association of WA
Australian Family Association
Catholic Social Welfare Commission
Pregnancy help (centre care)
Ngala Mothercraft Home and training Centre
Director of the Department for Community welfare
Association of Relinquishing Mothers
Concern for the Infertile Couple
Australian Medical Association (WA)
Department of Psychology (UWA)
Dr A.G.B O’Neil
Dr B. Buttsworth
(Plus 26 other submissions which are to remain anonymous)
10 oral submissions from:
Mr B.A. Peachey – Australian Family Association
Mrs Blackburn – Adoption Jigsaw
Mrs C.C. Shoenmakers – Pregnancy Help
Mrs E.S. Moulds – Association of Relinquishing Mothers
Dr A.G.B. O’Neil
Dr B. Buttsworth
(Plus 4 other submissions which are to remain anonymous)
Backlog Procedures Committee Report/Response and questions from Adoption       Jigsaw WA Inc, 1987?
Q362.73 ADO
3rd Floor, Stack, Ask Staff
The Adoption Triangle: A Question of Balance: Issues Paper,
Prepared by the Adoption Legislative Review Committee, 1989
Q346.9410178 ADO
Chairperson Ms Liza Newby
Members
Mr John Booth
Ms Rosemary Cant
Ms Daphne Cross
Ms Margaret van Keppel
Ms Farley O’Dea
Ms Jackie Watkins
A New Approach to Adoption: Draft Report
Prepared by the Adoption Legislative Review Committee, Perth, March 1990.
Q346.9410178 WES
Very useful discussion of issues
A New Approach to Adoption: Final Report
Prepared by the Adoption Legislative Review Committee, Perth, February, 1991.
Q346.9410178 WES
A New Approach to Adoption: Summary and Recommendations
Prepared by the Adoption Legislative Review Committee, Perth, February, 1991.
Q346.9410178 WES
Adoption Legislative Review: Adoption Act (1994): Issues paper
Prepared by the Adoption Legislative Review Committee (Family and        Children’s Services), Perth, May, 1997.
Q346.941078 WES.
A review of the 1994 legislation. Was prepared to assist those wishing to make a submission to the Committee. It outlines the major features of the Adoption Act 1994 and gives an overview of the major provisions of the Act and the implications for people affected by adoption. [Various interest groups had insisted on the review clause].
Adoption Legislative Review: Adoption Act (1994): Final Report
Prepared by the Adoption Legislative Review Committee, Perth, November, 1997.
Q346.941078 WES

State Records Office of Western Australia (SROWA)

  • Alexander Library Building
  • James St West Entrance
  • Perth Cultural Centre
  • Perth WA 6000
  • Phone: 08 9427 3360
  • Fax:     08 9427 3368
  • Email: sro@sro.wa.gov.au
  • http://www.sro.wa.gov.au

The State Records Commission of WA has ultimate responsibility for the records and can override government departments in regard to access decisions.

Department for Community Development (2) 1 July 2001

Preceding agencies
State Children’s Department 1 January 1917 – 22 December 1927
Child Welfare Department 22 December 1927 – 15 June 1972
Department for Community Welfare 16 June 1972 – 1 January 1985
Public Charities and State Children’s Department 1 January 1908 – 1 January 1917
Department for Community Development (1) 1 October 1992 – 1 July 1995
Department for Family and Children’s Services 1 July 1995 – 1 July 2001

Adoption Indexes

Series
2324
Start date
1 January 1908
End date
31 December 1966
Series description
Adoption Indexes used by the Child Welfare Department (and preceding agencies). They are an alphabetical listing of birth names of adopted children – and in some cases, adopting parents – who were registered by the Department. The indexes provide references to either a page number in the Department’s adoption registers, or else to a Child Welfare file. The Department of Community Development also maintains a series of adoption cards which the indexes refer to.
Access
The Adoption Indexes remain in the custody of the Department of Community Development. Access is through Colin Keogh (see below Adoption Organisations). Mr Keogh has indicated that to apply for access to information the History of Adoption Project would need to apply to the Adoption Services Office, Department for Community Development, setting out the parameters of the project, the funding and the personnel involved. The request for access would be assessed by the Research Committee and there would need to be written agreements regarding the use of data. At this time Mr Keogh believes the Department would agree to access to administrative records, but not family files.

Department of Indigenous Affairs 1 July 2001

Preceding agencies
Aboriginal Affairs Department 1 November 1994 – 1 July 2001
Department of Native Affairs 1 January 1936 – 31 December 1954
Department of Native welfare 1 January 1955 – 1 January 1972
Aboriginal Affairs Planning Department 1 January 1972 – 1 November 1994
Aborigines Department (2) 1 January 1926 – 1 January 1936
Department of the North West (1) 1 January 1920 – 1 January 1926
Fisheries Department (2) 1 January 1920 – 1 September 1964
Department of Aborigines and Fisheries 1 January 1909 – 1 January 1920
Aborigines Department (1) 1 April 1898 – 1 January 1909
Aborigines Protection Board 1 January 1886 – 1 April 1898

Many reports, correspondence and other records which may relate to adoption of Aboriginal children, or to the stolen generation. Many records are on open access.

State Library

Collections
All to be used only in the Researchers Room, Level 4, State Library of WA.

  • Adoption Jigsaw WA Records 1898-1984
  • MN 1227 (Catalogue reference – details all listings) Papers donated by Mrs Margaret Blackburn (Jigsaw WA President) 1987. Many are undated.
  • The following is a sample of the collection:
  • 3812A/1
  • Legislative Assembly, 7 December 1983
  • Adoption of Children Act: Amendment Bill, Second Reading.
  • Explores many aspects of adoption. A Select Committee of Inquiry to be established into the whole issue of adoption policy. To report 13 March 1984.
  • 3821A/2
  • Second Reading Speech (Adoption of Children Act: Amendment Bill)
  • Discussion of private adoptions in WA. Definition of the organisations which are able to arrange adoptions. Private adoption agencies have to be approved by the Minister for a period of 12 months at a time.
  • 3821A/3
  • Constitution of Jigsaw. By-laws.
  • 3821A/4
  • Report on the First National Jigsaw Conference, Melbourne, 1980.
  • 3821A/5
  • Personal report on the Conference, Margaret Blackburn.
  • 3812A/6
  • Western Australian Jigsaw’s particular aims.
  • 3812A/14
  • Handwritten notes summarising all references to adoption in Hansard, 20 September 1921 to 4 September 1980. 29 foolscap pages. Very useful.
  • 3812A/19-37
  • Talks by Margaret Blackburn, mostly undated, early 1980s.
  • What is Jigsaw and why was it formed?
  • How adoption affects all parties involved.
  • Alternatives to adoption.
  • World history of adoption.
  • WA’s history of adoption – and results of research by Margaret van Keppel (M Psych UWA) on the effects on relinquishing mothers.
  • Contact Register
  • Differences between adoption, fostering and wards of state.
  • Miscellaneous collections
  • All consist of A4 envelopes containing small collections of ephemera.
  • Collection PR 13492/2
  • WA Relinquishing Mothers Association
  • Information sheet – aims and activities of the Association. Notices of meetings and seminars (1983). Copies of newspaper articles
  • Collection PR 13130/1-
  • Adoption Research and Counselling Service (ARCS)
  • Brochures explaining aims of organisation
  • No dates
  • Collection PR 12925/1-
  • Australia for Children Society
  • Brochure describing overseas adoptions
  • No dates
  • Collection PR 10966/1-
  • Jigsaw WA
  • Brochures. Aims (1988)
  • Letter from Glennis Rees (Jigsaw) to Adoptive Parents Association, threatening legal action against Maureen Roberts and Trudy Rosenthal Trudy regarding articles and claims made in the APA newsletter.
  • A similar letter addressed to the Adoptive Parents Association newsletter.
  • Collection PR 11964/1
  • WA Committee on Adoption
  • Seminar papers (outline of seminars) 1985:
  • “An organisation consisting of representatives from each of the self-help voluntary and professional organisations involved with all aspects of adoption.”
  • Collection PR 11429/1-
  • Adoption Resource Centre
  • Child Health Services
  • Rheola St, West Perth
  • “The Centre offers an Information Service on all aspects of adoption”
  • No dates

Oral histories

  • Grant, Beryl, 1921 –
  • OH 2795         3rd Floor, Battye Library.
  • A/r       3 hrs (3×60 min tapes)             Ask staff
  • T/r        50 leaves                                 Ask staff
  • Open research. Publication requires written permission of Beryl Grant
  • Interviewed by Helen Charlesworth, May 1997
  • Ms Grant was matron of Ngala from its opening in 1959 to her retirement in 1980. In the interview she talks about her own life and career but offers insight into the management of Ngala where unmarried girls awaited the births of their babies (at King Edward Memorial Hospital). Ngala arranged adoptions through its relationship with the Child Welfare Department.  Adoptive parents could live in at the centre with their new babies. Awarded a Churchill Fellowship, she studied cross-cultural adoptions, fostering and single mothers in other countries.
  • Ms Grant is probably available for interview by the Adoption Project. Ngala passed on a request.
  • Kirk, Winifred Ailsa, 1919 –
  • OH 2631/6      3rd Floor, Battye Library
  • A/r       1 hr 55 min (2×60 min tapes)  Ask staff
  • T/r        46 leaves                                 Ask staff
  • Open research. Publication requires written permission of Winifred Kirk
  • Interviewed by Stuart Reid, 3 November 1995
  • Ms Kirk was Field Officer in adoptions from 1957 to 1979 for the Child Welfare Department. She prepared the documents to be presented to the Supreme Court for adoption. She reported on every applicant for adoption; she investigated the applicants and interviewed the relinquishing mothers. She was not involved in private adoptions. She describes the relinquishing mothers in some detail, as well as the changing social conditions that lead to a peak in adoptions in 1970/1971, followed by a rapid drop in numbers thereafter. Ms Kirk also describes the background to Ngala, from its beginnings as the House of Mercy to the Alexandra Home to Ngala.
  • Cooper, Florence
  • OH 2631/7      3rd Floor, Battye Library
  • A/r       1 hr 45 min      Ask staff
  • T/r        51 leaves         Ask staff
  • Open research. Publication requires written permission of Ms Cooper
  • Interviewed by Stuart Reid, 10 June 1996
  • Ms Cooper was on the Committee of the Alexandra Home from 1957-1959 and of Ngala from 1959. She describes the history of adoptions at Ngala, arranged through Matron Grant and the Child Welfare Department. She also describes the role of Ngala in caring for the mothers before their confinements, and its unique role in facilitating bonding between adoptive mothers and babies.
  • Meerwald, Jude, 1929 –
  • OH 2631/4      3rd Floor, Battye Library
  • A/r       2 hr 45 min      Ask staff
  • T/r                                Ask staff
  • Open research. Publication requires written permission of Ms Meerwald.
  • Interviewed by Stuart Reid, Oct and Nov 1995
  • She outlines the training of Mothercraft Nurses at Ngala, the care of unmarried mothers, including weaning after breast-feeding, and some background information regarding the mothers. For instance, she describes “girls” coming from the eastern States to give birth in secrecy.
  • Duncan, Helen MBE
  • OH 244           3rd Floor, Battye Library
  • A/r       1x90min, 1×60 min tapes        Ask staff
  • T/r        Summary of interview
  • Open research.
  • Interviewed by Chris Jeffery, 27 September 1977
  • Ms Duncan was on the Committee of the Alexandra Home and Ngala from 1949. She outlines the history and principles of The House of Mercy and its successors.
  • Thomson, Ian, 1929 –
  • OH2782          3rd Floor, Battye Library
  • A/r       6x60min tapes             Ask staff
  • S/r        Summary of interview
  • Open research. Author’s permission required for publication
  • Interviewed by L. Simm, 1995
  • Mr Thomson was abandoned in a Crippled Children’s Home in England, then transferred to an orphanage. He had limited contact with his mother and aunt, and never learned his family history. After migrating to Australia he and his wife adopted four children.
  • Other oral histories are available through Jigsaw and Adoptions International of WA (See below).

Video

  • Teenage pregnancy
  • Western Australian College of Advanced Education (WACAE), 1989
  • Mezzanine Floor, Film/Video, Battye Library, V3168, Ask Staff
  • In programme 1, a 16-year-old girl with a young baby and a 15-year-old girl, who is eight months pregnant, discuss the problems and difficulties of their situation and the personal development aspects of young motherhood. Programme 2 features a smorgasboard of the professional resources available to pregnant teenagers. Programme 3 is an interview in which the mother of a pregnant teenager explores the feelings, reactions and actions which ultimately led to the development of a support group: Parents of Adolescent Mothers. In programme 4, Sue Midford from the Adoption Research and Counselling Service in Perth discusses the issue of adoption with two young women who have faced this situation.

Printed primary sources

Pamphlets, newsletters, annual reports

A Guide to search, mediation and contact, Family Information and Adoption Services, Department of Family and Children’s Services, 1997.
Notes that adoption files held by Family Information and Adoption Service go back to 1920s, but minimal records of private adoptions until 1960s
Adoption: What are the alternatives? A Pamphlet for Mothers who are considering placing their children for adoption
The Association of Relinquishing Mothers, Tuart Hill, 1985.
362.8392 ADO
3rd Floor, Stack, Ask Staff
Very useful
Adoptions International News, 1999-2005, AIWA (Adoptions International Western Australia)
362.734 ADO
3rd Floor, Stack, Ask Staff
Articles, letters, information and advice
Adoptive Parents Newsletter, 1986-1992, Adoptive Parents Association of WA
Q362.734 ADO and Q363.734 NEW
3rd Floor, Stack, Ask Staff
Information. History of adoption in WA
Annual Reports of the State Children’s Department, Perth, in Minutes, Votes and   Proceedings of the Parliament….with papers presented to both Houses, Government printer, Perth, 1890-2005.
For example, 1912, – Lists numbers of state wards, conduct of orphanages,             illegitimate children, numbers of adoptions.
Annual report, 2003-2005, Adoption Jigsaw WA Inc
362.734 ADO
3rd Floor, Stack, Ask staff
ARMS update, 1983-1997, Association of Relinquishing mothers,
362.734 ARM
3rd Floor, Stack, Ask Staff
Articles, letters, newspaper articles, information and advice
Bayliss, Janet, et al, (contributors), Procedure for the Assessment of Adoptive Parents, Department for Community Services, WA, 1987.
Contents
Part 1   – A research-based rationale for the assessment procedure
Part 2   – The practitioner’s guide to the procedure
Part 3   – Collating the information to make a recommendation
Q362.734 PRO
Information about adoption, Department for Community Development, WA
1 (Sep 1994) – 15 (1996)
362.734 INF
3rd Floor, Stack, Ask Staff
Jigsaw Pieces, Adoption Jigsaw WA
1988-2005
Q362.734 JIG
3rd Floor, Stack, Ask Staff
Very useful. Discussion of reunions, infertility, advice and information
New options in Adoption: Understanding Western Australia’s New Laws on Adoption,
Prepared by Public Affairs Branch, Department for Community Development, Perth, 1994.
346.9410178 NEW
3rd Floor, Cabinet
Newspaper and magazine articles
(No on-line catalogue. Limited card catalogue references, but mostly quoted in various books and newsletters. Page references rarely given; topics not always. Many references come from Elphick, Adoption Jigsaw, so some bias in selection of topics)

 

West Australian:
4 October 1973, p.11 Legislation to strengthen protection of people involved in adoption
27 May 1974, p. 13 Overseas adoption
23 March 1976, p. 4 Overseas adoption
9 December 1976, p.1 Overseas adoption
5 December 1979 Article re adoption
12 December 1979 Letter re adoption
12 January 1979 Reply to letter
4 April 1981 Foster children
9 April 1981 Foster children
18 April 1983 Reunion
23 August 1983, p.3 Government to establish a contact register
8 December 1986, p. 1 Report on Select Committee findings
27 February 1987 ARCS view
18 May 1988 Jackie Watkins and daughter reunited
1 January 1993 Article re. adoption
29 January 1993 Unusual reunion story
30 March 1993 Adoption bill
Aug – Sep 1993 Letters re changes to legislation
October 1993 Article re. adoption
Daily News:
1 January 1962, p.5
16 November 1972, p.22
Problems of adoption
19 June 1973, p. 3 Baby shortage
8 March 1983, p. 30 Cross-cultural adoption
November 1983
6 November 1985
Article

                                   

Sunday Times:
30 October 1977 Personal story
10 January 1982 Jigsaw
8 May 1983
12 May 1985
Plea to mother
7 February 1999, pp. 8-9 Macdonald, Kim, ‘Agony, joy, for childless women, 1999. Reviews of Adoption and Reproductive Technology’.

                    

Sunday Independent:
3 June 1979 Search
1 March 1980 Outcome
3 June 1979 Search
2 December 198, Outcome
Subiaco Post:
8 March 1988 Opening of Jigsaw premises
19 December 1991 Obituary – Robin Winkler
Western Mail:
March 1984
10 August 1985
New Idea:
August 1983 Article on Jackie Watkins, MLA
Wanneroo Times:
14 Feb 1984, p. 21 Jackie Watkins
Woman’s day:
27 April 1982 Article on Robin Winkler and Margaret Van Keppel

Debate carried on in newspapers from August 1983 until February 1984 regarding changes to the Adoption Act. Quoted in Elphick, Adoption Jigsaw.

Daily News:
24 August 1983 Government announcement re changes
28 July, 1983 Government announcement

Adoptive parents

Daily News
31 August 1983 Letters
West Australian
August 1983, Letters
15 August 1983, Letters
7 September 1983, Letters
15 September 1983, Letters
Wanneroo Times
6 September 1983, Letters
19 December 1983, Letters

Relinquishing mothers

Wanneroo Times and West Australian

Professionals

West Australian
9 August 1983
27 August 1983
August 1983

Adoptees

West Australian
4 August 1983
5 September 1983
Wanneroo Times
6 September 1983
13 December 1983
10 January 1984

Adoptive mothers

West Australian
6 September 1983, Article

Secondary sources

First person writing

Abbott, Debby, Is a child within my reach? One woman’s search to become a mother,
D Abbott, Warnbro, WA, 2002
616.692 ABB
Henry, Sam, The road to parenthood: adoption and beyond, Hesperian Press, 2003
362.734
3rd Floor, Stack, Ask Staff.
Johnson, Glennis Irene, Mallee girl: a memoir, G.I Dees, Heathridge, WA, 1999.
Autobiography. Searched for birth mother, had to have law changed to obtain       her birth certificate. One of the founders of the Adoption Jigsaw.

Books,  papers and theses

Elphick, Ron, The Adoption Jigsaw, R. Elphick, Perth, WA, 2000
A history of Jigsaw in WA from 1978-1998.
Q362.734 ELP
Kerr, Rosemary, “The appeal of blue eyes: Adoption, Citizenship and Eugenics in Western Australia during the interwar years”, Edeson, Gemma, and Cupitt, Cathy, (eds.), On the Edge 2000, Refereed Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Curtin Humanities Postgraduate Research conference 2000, Black Swan Press, 2001, pp. 3-12.
001.3 CUR, Stack, Ask Staff.
Lang, Jean, The Open Door: a history of loving care for families, House of Mercy – Alexandra Home – Ngala, 1890-1980, Ngala Mothercraft Home and Training   Centre Inc, Perth, 1980.
362.828 LAN
Maloney, B., The Life and Work of Sister Kate, Graylands Teachers College Thesis, 1964
362.732 MAL
Early twentieth century. Orphaned children, unwanted babies looked after at Sister Kate cottages in Parkerville and Queens Park. Later taken over by the Child Welfare Department.

Adoption Service Providers

In Western Australia only the Department for Community Development is licensed and accredited to arrange legal adoptions (since 1985). One organisation, Adoptions International, has applied to the Minister three times for accreditation and has been refused. No other organisation has applied.

  • Minister – Hon Sheila McHale, MLA, Minister for Community Development, Women’s Interests, Culture and the Arts
  • 12th Floor Dumas House
  • 2 Havelock St, West Perth WA 6005
  • Ph 08 9213 6900, Fax 08 9213 6901
  • sheilam@mp.wa.gov.au
  • Department for Community Development
  • 189 Royal St, East Perth WA 6004
  • PO Box 6334 East Perth 6892
  • Ph 08 9222 2555
  • Director General – Jane Brazier
  • Ph 08 9222 2505 Fax 08 9222 2653
  • Executive Director – Lex McCulloch
  • Ph 9222 2725 Fax 08 9222 2953
  • Adoption Services Office (pre-Adoption)
  • Reception: Ph 08 9222 2555 / Freecall 1800 622 258
  • Fax 08 9222 2607
  • Email adoptions@dcd.wa.gov.au
  • Manager, Adoption Services – Colin Keogh Ph 08 9222 2800 colinke@dcd.wa.gov.au
  • Past Adoption Services
  • (Also Department for Community Development – details as above)
  • Director Information Services – Peter Wimsett,
  • Ph 08 9222 2509, Fax 08 9222 2822 peterw@fcs.wa.gov.au

Support Services

  • Adoption Jigsaw of WA (Jigsaw)
  • PO Box 403 Subiaco WA 6904
  • 08 9388 1922, Fax 9388 3364
  • jigsaw@jigsaw.org.au
  • www.jigsaw.org.au
  • Funded by Department for Community Development
  • Offers a professional information, support, search, contact and mediation service to all those with a family separation experience, in particular adoption.
  • Was set up by interest groups.
  • Adoption Research and Counselling Service Inc (ARCS)
  • PO Box 187 Mt Lawley WA 6929
  • Ph 08 9370 4914 Fax 9370 4917
  • arcs@adoptionwa.org.au
  • www.adoptionwa.org.au
  • Funded by Department for Community Development
  • An independent community agency that provides professional counselling, support and information to anyone dealing with the challenges and opportunities in: adoption, pre-adoption, step and blended families, foster families and families created through Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART).
  • Was largely set up by professionals – particularly Robin Winkler (Psychologist at UWA)
  • Adoption Support for Families and Children Inc (ASFC)
  • 08 9381 2221
  • Provides support to adoptive families and prospective adoptive parents. Operates child sponsorship programs in India, Thailand, Philippines and Korea. Also provides aid to children in third-world countries.
  • Private, non-government organisation.
  • Previously Australian for Children Society
  • Previously ASIAC – Australian Society for Intercountry Aid to Children
  • Adoptions International of WA Inc (AIWA)
  • St Brigid’s Centre
  • 60 John St, Suite 6
  • Northbridge WA 6003
  • Ph   08 9328 2555
  • Fax 08 9328 2544
  • Connected with Adoption Support for Families and Children. Formed in the hope of becoming a licensed and accredited adoption agency. Not successful, so will be re-absorbed into Adoption Support for Families and Children Inc.
  • Association Representing Mothers Separated from their Children by Adoption Inc (ARMS)
  • PO Box 521 Hamilton Hill WA
  • 08 9312 1999
  • Provides emotional support to mothers separated from their children by adoption. To educate the public of the lifelong effects of adoption and to work to change adoption laws and practices.
  • South Western Adoption Support Group
  • 104 Peel Terrace, Busselton, WA
  • Pat – Ph & Fax  08 9754 1976
  • clarrie@westnet.com.au
  • Pauline – 08 9752 2440
  • Other Organisations and Interest groups
  • WA Council on Adoption and Alternative Families (WACAAF)–
  • Peak body that included all adoption organisations in Western Australia – developed to bring all parties together to discuss and work towards changes in legislation, especially in regard to gaining access to records.
  • Organised by Robin Winkler, bringing all stakeholders together. Robin now deceased.
  • Adoptive Families Association of WA
  • Previously Adoptive Parents Association of WA
  • Started in mid 1980s by adoptive parents to represent adoptive parents. Closed in 1997.
  • Wanted to develop a Positive Register at the Department for Community development. However, it was disallowed because of the veto option.

Holdings at University of Western Australia

Collection donated to Dr Pam Sharpe by Trudy Rosenwald (Adoptions International)

16 boxes (magazine holder style) and files
Almost entirely newsletters of adoption organisations around Australia

Box 1
ASIAC (Australian Society for Intercountry Aid (Children)), Victoria Annual Report 1977
AACASA (Australian African Children’s Aid and Support Association Inc) Queensland, December 2005
Adoption Australia, Canberra, Newsletters Winter 1991-1996 and April 1982
Box 2
SNAP (Adoptive Parents Association of Canberra) Newsletters
April/May 1980 – Aug/Sp 1985
News, Personal stories, Soapbox, Information
Box 3
Adoption Australia, Newsletters
1985 – 1991
Box 4
Adoption Australia, Newsletters
1996 – 2005
Box 5
Adoptive Families Association of Queensland, Toowoomba, Newsletters
Undated. Late 1980s? – 1990 and 1991
Adoptions Newsletter Queensland
Around Adoption, Magazine of the Adoptive Parents Association of NSW
Undated, but 1988 – late 1990s.
Box 6
ASIAC Newsletters
Box 7
Victorian Newsletters
Box 8
NSW Newsletters
Box 9
IAPA (International Adoptive Parents Association) Newsletters
Box 10
Australians Caring for Children, Newsletters, 1988 – 1995
Box 11
Australians Caring for Children, Newsletters, 1995 –
Box 12
Australian African Children’s Aid and Support, Newsletters
Box 13
Inter Adoptive Families of Queensland, Newsletters
2002 – 2005
Box 14
Australians Aiding Children, Newsletters
Nov 1986 – 1995
File
FACTS, Victoria,  Newsletters
1990 – 1998

 

Australian Adoption Conferences

  • Proceedings of the 1st Australian Adoption Conference, Sydney, New South Wales, 15-20 February, 1976
  •  Current Concerns and Alternatives for Child Placement and Parenting: Proceedings of the 2nd Australian Adoption Conference, Melbourne, Victoria, May 1978
  • Changing Families: Proceedings of the 3rd Australian Conference on Adoption, Adelaide,
  • Working Together in the 1990s: Proceedings of the 4th Australian Conference on Adoption, Canberra 5-7 October, 1990 May 1982
  •  Has Adoption a Future? Proceedings of the 5th Australian Adoption Conference, Sydney, August 1994 
  •  Separation, Reunion, Reconciliation: Proceedings of the 6th Australian Conference on Adoption, Brisbane, June 1997
  • Putting the Pieces Together: Proceedings of the 7th Australian Adoption Conference, Hobart, Tasmania, 15-17 May, 2000
  • Looking Back – Taking Stock – Moving Forward: Proceedings of the 8th Australian Adoption Conference, Adelaide, South Australia, 19-21 April, 2004
  • Connecting Past, Securing Future: Proceedings of the 9th Australian Adoption Conference, Sydney, New South Wales, 2-5 September, 2008
  • Intercountry AdoptionPapers Given at a Public Seminar Held at the University of Adelaide, 9th and 10th July 1977, edited by G.P. Mullins. Dept. of Adult Education, University of Adelaide, 1977
  •  The Year of the Child: International Responsibilities: Proceedings of a Public Seminar Held at the University of Adelaide, 26th and 27th May, 1979, edited by G.P. Mullins. Dept. of Continuing Education, University of Adelaide, 1979
  •  Substitute Care for Children: Emerging Issues: Proceedings of a Seminar on Child Welfare Issues in Australia, 25-26 May, 1984, edited by Laksiri Jayasuriya and Joe Calleja. Dept. of Social Work and Social Administration, University of Western Australia, in conjunction with Australian Association of Social Workers (W.A. Branch), Nedlands, 1984

 

Australian Adoption Newsletters

Voice 
by VANISH Inc.
Publisher: Melbourne, Vic: VANISH Inc., 1989-

Newsletter
by Origins NSW.
Publisher: Dulwich Hill, N.S.W.: Origins NSW Inc., 2000-

ASIAC News
by Australian Society for Intercountry Aid (Children);
Publisher: Glen Waverley, Vic.: Australian Society for Intercountry Aid (Children) Victoria Inc., 1989-

ASIAC Newsletter
by Australian Society for Intercountry Aid (Children);
Publisher: Glen Waverley, Vic.: Australian Society for Intercountry Aid (Children), 1986-1988.

ASIAC Victoria Newsletter
by Australian Society for Intercountry Aid (Children);
Publisher: Glen Waverley, Vic.: Australian Society for Intercountry Aid (Children), 1981-1985.

PARC News: Newsletter of the Post Adoption Resource Centre
by Post Adoption Resource Centre.;
Publisher: Paddington, N.S.W.: The Centre, 1992.

Adoption Australia
by Adoptive Parents Association, Canberra.
Publisher: Woden, A.C.T.: Adoptive Parents Association, Canberra (Inc), 1982- .

Adoptions Australia
by Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.
Publisher: Canberra: Australian Govt. Pub. Service, ©1993-

Snap: Magazine of the Adoptive Parents Association Canberra 
by Adoptive Parents Association, Canberra.
Publisher: Woden, A.C.T.: Adoptive Parents Association, 1979-1984.

[Papers and proceedings] of the…Australian Adoption Conference 
by Australian Adoption Conference.
Publisher: Sydney, N.S.W.: Australian Conference on Adoption, 1976-

Newsletter
by Adoption Support for Families and Children.
Publisher: Subiaco, W.A.: The Society, 2000-

Branching Out: Newsletter of the Post Adoption Resource Centre.
by Post Adoption Resource Centre.;
Publisher: Paddington, N.S.W.: Post Adoption Resource Centre.

Newsletter
by Origins Inc.;
Publisher: Dulwich Hill, N.S.W.: Origins Inc., 1995-2000.

Around Adoption: the Magazine of the Adoptive Parents Association of N.S.W.
by Adoptive Parents Association of N.S.W.;
Publisher: Harbord, N.S.W.: The Association.

Adopt West
by Adoptions International of Western Australia.;
Publisher: Northbridge [W.A.]: Adoptions International of Western Australia, 2000-

Adoptions; Welstat National Data Collection
by WELSTAT (Australia); Australia. Standing Committee of Social Welfare Administrators.
Publisher: Parramatta, N.S.W.: WELSTAT, 1990-1992.

Newsletter
by Adoptive Families Association of Western Australia.;
Publisher: Midland, W.A.: The Association, 1993-

Adoptive Parents Newsletter
by Adoptive Parents Association of Western Australia.
Publisher: Perth [W.A.]: [Adoptive Parents Association of Western Australia], 1986-1992.

Intercountry Adoption News
by South Australia. Adoption and Family Information Service.;
Publisher: [Adelaide]: Adoption and Family Information Service, 2005-

Adoptions, Australia
by Australian Bureau of Statistics. WELSTAT (Australia);
Publisher: Canberra: ABS, 1982-[1986?]

Insights
by Adoption Research and Counselling Service (Inc.);
Publisher: Mount Lawley, W.A.: ARCS, 2003-

Newsletter
by Australian Society for Intercountry Aid (Children);
Publisher: Glen Waverley, Vic.: The Society.

Australia for Children News
by Australia for Children Society.
Publisher: Shelley, W.A.: Australia for Children Society, 1985-

Adoptions International News
by Adoptions International of Western Australia.
Publisher: Northbridge, W.A.: AIWA.

Snap Magazine: Adoption and Fostering
by Adoptive Parents Association of Canberra.
Publisher: Canberra: Adoptive Parents Association of Canberra, 1984-1985.
[originally Newsletter/ACT Adoptive Parents Association, 1976 – 
by ACT Adoptive Parents Association
Publisher: Canberra: The Association]

Jigsaw Pieces
by Adoption Jigsaw W.A.;
Publisher: Cannington, W.A.: Adoption Jigsaw W.A., 1980-

A.A.F.A. Newsletter
by Australian Adoptive Families Association.
Publisher: Adelaide: The Association.

Newsletter
by Australia for Children Society.
Publisher: Subiaco, W.A.: The Society.

Information about Adoption: Information Sheet
by Western Australia. Dept. for Community Development, Western Australia. Family Information and Adoption Service.;
Publisher: East Perth [W.A.]: The Dept., 1994-

Newsletter
by Adoption Research and Counselling Service (Inc.)
Publisher: Mount Lawley, W.A.: The Service.

Searching in Adoption: A Guide
by Victoria. Adoption Information Service.;
Publisher: [Melbourne]: Adoption Information Service, Community Services Victoria, 1989-

Annual Report and Business Plan
by South Australia. Adoption and Family Information Service.
Publisher: Adelaide, S. Aust.: Adoption and Family Information Service, 2001.

Annual Report
by Adoption Jigsaw W.A.
Publisher: Subiaco, W.A.: Adoption Jigsaw W.A.

Adoptions Australia 1990-91: state and territory tables
by Australian Institute of Health and Welfare
Publisher: Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 1993.

Adoptions Australia 1994-95: state and territory tables
by Australian Institute of Health and Welfare
Publisher: Canberra: AIHW, 1996.

Adoptions Australia
by Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.
Publisher: Canberra: Australian Govt. Pub. Service

Adoptions Newsletter/Department of Family Services and Aboriginal and Islander Affairs, No. 1 (April. 1995) – No. 5 (Aug. 1996); v.1, no.1 (Aug. 1999) -
by Department of Families, Youth and Community Care
Publisher: Brisbane: Adoptions Section, Dept. of Family Services and Aboriginal and Islander Affairs

New South Wales statistics of Adoptions
by Australian Bureau of Statistics
Publisher: Sydney: Bureau of Census and Statistics, 1970-1981.

 

 

Secondary sources

These listings  cover a wide variety of published sources, focussing on material relevant to Australia. 
They are organised by subject. We intend soon to make them searchable by title and author. 

Adoption Experiences: Personal Narratives

Abbott, D. 2002. Is a Child Within my Reach: One Woman’s Very Personal Biography and Soul Wrenching Search to Become a Mother. Warnbro, WA: Debby Abbott.

Association of Relinquishing Mothers, 1996. Alternatives to Adoption: Information for Parents Considering Adoption for their Child. Tuart Hill, WA: The Association.

Burns Robinson, E. 2000. Adoption and Loss: The Hidden Grief. Christies Beach, SA: Clova Publications.

Burns Robinson, E. 2004. Adoption and Recovery: Solving the Mystery of Reunion. Christies Beach, SA: Clova Publications.

Burrows, J. 1994. For Too Long: Writing by Mothers Who Lost their Babies in the Adoption Scandal. Dulwich Hill, NSW: Mothers for Contact in Adoption Inc.

Butler, D., and Butler, V. 1993. Who am I? Toukley, NSW: V. Butler.

Chick, S. 1994. Searching for Charmian: The Daughter Charmian Clift Gave Away Discovers the Mother She Never Knew. Sydney: Pan Macmillan.

Coles, G. 2004. Ever After: Fathers and the Impact of Adoption. Christies Beach, SA: Clova Publications.

Coles, G. 2005. Transparent: Seeing Through the Legacy of Adoption. Melbourne: Mermerus Books.

Dalziell, R. 1997. ‘Religious experience and the displaced child: Autobiographies of illegitimacy and adoption’. St Mark’s Review 170: 24−29.

Dessaix, R. 1994. A Mother’s Disgrace. Sydney: Angus & Robertson.

Edwards C., Read, P. (eds) 1989. The Lost Children: thirteen Australians taken from their Aboriginal families tell of the struggle to find their natural parents. Sydney: Doubleday.

English, B. 1994. ‘What adoption tells us about ourselves’. Ulitarra 6: 112–116.

Fisher. M.C. 2004. Minnows and Mud. Leopold, Victoria: Nadia Zacchigna.

Foster, D. 1998. ‘She called her Coral because it was “a perfect pink day”: The neglecting of Coral’. Journal of Australian Studies 59: 20–38.

Frame, T.R. 1999. Binding Ties: An Experience of Adoption and Reunion in Australia. Sydney: Hale & Iremonger

Hammond, S. 1998. Adoption: Lies and Conspiracy. Montville, Qld: Oracle Press.

Harkness, L. 1991. Looking for Lisa. Milsons Point: Random House.

James, A. 2001. Teddy Bear Coming out of the Corner: the True Story of an Adoptive Mother Dealing with her Fears. Wahroonga, NSW: A. James.

Keenen, E. 2001. I Shook the Family Tree: The Story of an Adopted Boy. Mandurah, WA: Interesting Pub.

Livingston-Stuart, C. Robins, A. 1992. Why Was I Adopted? Sydney: Angus & Robertson.

Matthews, G. 1996. An Australian Son. Melbourne: Heinemann Australia.

McGuire, G. 1998. You Only Have One Mother, ed. G.K. Bastian. Springwood, NSW: Conference Publications.

Perl, L. Markham, S. 1999. ‘Why Wasn’t I Told?’ Making Sense of the Late Discovery of Adoption. Paddington, N.S.W.: The Benevolent Society of New South Wales.

Preston, Y. 1993. ‘The heartbreak no-one talks about. Foster parents’ views on adoption and care’.Independent Monthly (June).

Robinson, E. 2000. Adoption and Loss: The Hidden Grief. Christies Beach, SA: Clova Publications.

Robinson, E. 2009. Adoption Reunion: Ecstasy or Agony? Christie’s Beach, SA: Clova Publications.

Turner Smith, J. 2007. Adopting: Parents Stories. Kent Town, SA: Wakefield Press.

Valentine, C., Slaytor, P. 1990. Down the Track: Outcomes of Adoption Reunions: Personal Stories. Paddington, NSW: NSW Committee on Adoption, Social Work Department.

Watson, M. 2010. Surviving Secrets. A Journey of Resilience and Courage. Available online via A&A Book Publishing, at http://aampersanda.com/

Wasley, V. 2008. Yabbies in the Bath Tub (Or Our Children by Choice). Berri, SA: Wasley.

Adoption Search Guides and Evaluations

Feldman, S. 1990. An Evaluation Study of a Self-Search Program for Adult Adopted Persons in Victoria, Australia. MA thesis, Department of Social Work, Monash University.

Feldman, S. 1990. Self Search—A Program for Adult Adopted Persons: The Adoption Information Service Research Project 1990. Melbourne: Community Services Victoria.

Government of Victoria: Community Services Victoria, 1989 [and subsequent editions]. Searching in Adoption: A Guide: a Do-it-Yourself Guide Designed to Assist People Searching for Family Members From Whom They Have Been Separated by Adoption. Melbourne: Adoption Information Service.

Government of New South Wales: Department of Community Services, NSW, 1998 (revised 1999, 2000, 2001). Adoption Information Act 1990. Adoptees and Birthparents: Adoption Search Guide. Parramatta, NSW: [Family Information Service] Depatment of Community Services.

Government of South Australia: Adoption & Family Information Service, 2002. Accessing Your Family Information: An Overview. Adelaide. http://www.dcsi.sa.gov.au/pub/default.aspx?tabid=199

Government of Victoria: Department of Human Services: Adoption Information Service, 1999 (sixth edition). Searching in Adoption and Wardship: A Guide. Melbourne: Department of Human Services.

Government of Western Australia: Department for Family and Children’s Services; Family Information and Adoption Service, March 1997. A Guide to Search, Mediation and Contact in Adoption. East Perth: Family & Children’s Services.

Government of W.A.: Department of Child Protection. Past Adoption Information and Services. http://www.dcp.wa.gov.au/FOSTERINGANDADOPTION/Pages/PastAdoptionInfo.aspx , accessed March 2013.

Government of Western Australia: Department of Community Development, 2006. ROADS: An index of locations and access to adoption records.

http://www.dcp.wa.gov.au/FosteringandAdoption/Documents/ROADS2006.pdf

McPhee, G., Webster, M. 1993. ‘Exposing adoption myths: Access to information about origins in Victoria’. Australian Journal of Social Issues 28 (2): 142–157.

Picton, C. 1988. Person in Question: Adoptees and Relinquishing Parents in Search of Each Other [microform]. M.Soc.Work thesis, Monash University, Victoria.

Swain, P., Swain, S. 1992. To Search for Self: The Experience of Access to Adoption Information. Sydney: Federation Press.

Thinee, K., and Bradford, T. 1998. Connecting Kin: Guide to Records, A guide to help people separated from their families search for their records. New South Wales Department of Community Services, Sydney, New South Wales. http://www.community.nsw.gov.au/DOCSWR/_assets/main/documents/connectkin_guide.pdf

Historical and Other Perspectives

Bates, F. 1975. Expert evidence in cases involving children’. University of Western Australia Law Review 12 (2) December: 139–152.

Bates, F. 2005. ‘Children’s Best Interests in Australia: Camouflage, Persiflage or What?’, International Family Law Journal (September): 138–145.

Boss, P., Edwards, S. 1992. Adoption Australia: A Comparative Study of Australian Adoption Legislation and Policy. Notting Hill, Vic.: National Children’s Bureau of Australia.

Condon, J. 1986. ‘Psychological disability in women who relinquish a baby for adoption’. Medical Journal of Australia 144 (3): 117–119.

Cowell, J., Crowe, K., Wilson, A. 1996. Understanding Reunion: Connection and Complexity: An Outcome Study of Adoption Reunion and the Process of Mediation at the Post Adoption Resource Centre. Sydney: Post-Adoption Resource Centre.

Cuthbert, D. 2010. ‘Beyond apologies: Historical reflections on policy and practice relating to the out-of-home care of children in contemporary Australia’. Children Australia, 35 (2): 12–17.

Cuthbert, D., Murphy K., Quartly, M. 2009. ‘Adoption and feminism: Towards framing a feminist response to contemporary developments in adoption’. Australian Feminist Studies 24, issue 62: 395–419.

Cuthbert, D., Quartly, M. (eds). 2010. Adoption, Fostering, Permanent Care and Beyond: Re-Thinking Policy and Practice in Out-of-home Care for Children in Australia. Special issue of Children Australia, 35.2.

Cuthbert, D., Quartly, M. 2012. ‘“Forced adoption” in the Australian story of national regret and apology’. Australian Journal of Politics and History 58: 82–96.

Cuthbert, D., Quartly, M. 2013 (forthcoming). ‘Forced Child Removal and the Politics of National Apologies in Australia’. American Indian Quarterly 37.

Charlesworth, S., Turner J. N., Forman, L. 2000. Disrupted Families and the Law, Leichhardt, NSW: Federation Press. 

Chapman, P., Sr. 1985. ‘Sixty-five Years of Adoption Practice in Tasmania’. Current Issues—New Trends. Proceedings of the First Tasmanian Conference on Adoption, Hobart, November.

Crowe, J., Toohey, L. 2009. ‘From Good Intentions to Ethical Outcomes: The Paramountcy of Children’s Interests in the Family Law Act’, Melbourne University Law Review 33: 391−414.

Farrar, P. D. 1999. Relinquishment and abjection: A semanlysis of the meaning of losing a baby to adoption. PhD thesis, University of Technology, Sydney.

Fernandez, E. 1996. Significant Harm: Unravelling Child Protection Decisions and Substitute Care Careers of Children: Perspectives of Child Welfare Workers and Biological Parents [in Australia]. Aldershot: Avebury.

Finlay, H. 2005. To Have and to Hold: A History of Attitudes to Marriage and Divorce in Australia, 1858–1975. Sydney: The Federation Press.

Fopp, P. 1975. The Child’s Right at Law in Adoption: A Paper’. Paper presented at a public seminar on “The Rights of the Child” at the University of Adelaide. [Adelaide: Department for Community Welfare.]

Gilding, M, 1991. The Making and Breaking of the Australian Family. Sydney: Allen &Unwin.

Grimshaw, P., Lake, M., McGrath, A., Quartly, M. 2006. Creating a Nation. Perth: Network.

Hale, M.1988. Past Relinquishing Mothers—A Forgotten Group. Honours thesis, South Australian Institute of Technology.

Hale, M. 1988. ‘Relinquishing mothers: The emergence of a neglected group’. South Australian Social Worker 4 (2): 4–6.

Harris, H. D. 2005. ‘The Infant Life Protection Act of 1890: (or how useful police records can be)’. Genealogist 11 (5): 180–181.

Harper, J. 1984. ‘ “Who am I?” A crisis of identity for the adopted adolescent’. Mental Health in Australia 1 (13), December.

Hocking, B.A., Harvey-Blankenship, M. 2002. ‘Genetics as a tool of justice, history and identity’. Australian Canadian Studies 20 (2): 65–80.

Howe, R, Swain, S. 1993. The Challenge of the City: The Centenary History of Wesley Central Mission. Melbourne: Hyland House.

Inglis, K. 1984. Living Mistakes: Mothers Who Consented to Adoption. Sydney: Allen &Unwin.

Jones, C. 2000. ‘Adoption: A study of post-war child removal in NSW’. Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society86 (1).

Kelly, S. 2000. ‘Adoption in Australia: An Overview’. In Family Futures: Issues in Research and Policy. Seventh Australian Institute of Family Studies Conference, Sydney, July.

Kerr, R. 1998. ‘Creating Citizens: The State and Child Welfare in Western Australia 1907−1954’. Paper presented at the International Federation for Research in Women’s History Conference, Melbourne, Victoria.

Kerr, R. 2001. ‘The appeal of blue eyes: Adoption, citizenship and eugenics in Western Australia during the interwar years’. In On the Edge: Refereed Proceedings of the Curtin Humanities Postgraduate Research Conference, Perth, Western Australia, pp. 3–12.

Lang, J. 1980. The Open Door. Perth: Ngala Mothercraft Home and Training Centre Inc.

Mandryk, M. K. 2011. Adopted Persons’ Access to and Use of their Original Birth Certificates: An Analysis of Australian Policy and Legislation. Master of Social Science thesis, RMIT University.

Marshall, A. 1987. Adoption, the Challenge of Change. Report Prepared for the NSW Catholic Social Welfare Committee. Sydney: New South Wales Catholic Social Welfare Committee.

Marshall, A., McDonald, M. 2001. The Many-Sided Triangle: Adoption in Australia. Carlton: Melbourne University Publishing.

Moor, M. 2005. Silent Violence: Australia’s Stolen White Children. PhD thesis, Griffith University.

Murphy, K., Quartly, M., Cuthbert, D. 2009. ‘“In the Best Interests of the Child”: Mapping the (Re) Emergence of Pro-Adoption Politics in Contemporary Australia’. Australian Journal of Politics and History, 55.2: 201–218.

Musgrove N., Swain, S. 2010The “Best Interests of the Child” in Historical Perspective’. Children Australia 35.2: 35–37.

O’Neill, C. 1994. ‘To attach or not?…the burning question’. Paper presented at the Fourth Australian Conference on Adoption , Canberra, 1990. Children Australia 19 (2): 15–17.

O’Neill, C. 1993. ‘“Do you mean, we’re not the only ones?” Disruption, powerlessness and empowerment’. Children Australia 18 (2): 13–17.

O’Neill, C., Absler, D. 1998. ‘“It must be because …” Non-biological care and mental health: Part I: Setting the context’.Children Australia 23 (3): 4−8.

Peel, M. 1998. Australian Families: Images and Essays. Melbourne: Scribe.

Picton, C. 1980. ‘Outcomes in adoption: The views of adoptees and natural parents’. Australian Child and Family Welfare 5: 1–8.

Quartly, M. 2010.The “Rights of the Child” in global perspective’. Adoption, Fostering, ChildrenAustralia 35.2: 38–42.

Quartly, M. 2012. ‘“[W]e find families for children, not children for families”: An incident in the long and unhappy history of relations between social workers and adoptive parents.” Social Policy and Society 11.3 (): 415–427.

Quartly, M., Cuthbert, D., Murphy, K., 2009.Political representations of adoption in Australia, 1996–2007.” Adoption and Culture 2: 141–158.

Quartly, M., Cuthbert, D., Swain, S. 2012. ‘A report on the findings of the Monash History of Adoption project.” Australian Journal of Adoption 6 (12): n. p. (Papers of the 10th Australian Adoption Conference). At http://www.nla.gov.au/openpublish/index.php/aja/article/view/2523/2974

Quartly, M., Swain, S. 2012. “The market in children: analysing the language of adoption in Australia.” History Australia, 9 (2): 69–89.

Quirk, C.A. 2012. Separated at Birth: Adoption Practices in Relation to Single Women Confined at the Royal Women’s Hospital, 1945–1975. MPhil thesis, Australian Catholic University.

Reiger, K. 1985. The Disenchantment of the Home: Modernising the Australian Family. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Rosenwald, T. 2004. ‘From the Trenches of War on Adoption in Australia’. In Knowledge into Action! Effective Practice for Child and Family Services. Sydney: Conference of the Association of Children’s Welfare Agencies. At http://www.acwa.asn.au/conf2004/acwa2004papers/15_McCullagh_War.pdf

Siedlecky, S., Wyndham, D. 1990. Populate and Perish: Australian Women’s Fight for Birth Control. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.

Spark, C., Cuthbert, D. 2009. Other People’s Children: Adoption in Australia. Melbourne: Australian Scholarly Publishing.

Swain, S. 2010. ‘Birth and death in a new land’. History of the Family 15 (1): 25–33.]

Swain, S. 2011. ‘Adoption, secrecy and the spectre of the true mother in twentieth-century Australia. Australian Feminist Studies 26:68: 193–205.

Swain, S. 2011. “Failing families: Echoes of nineteenth century child rescue discourse in contemporary debates around child protection.” In Marie-Louise Kulke and Christian Gutlebon (eds), Neo-Victorian Families: Gender, Sexual and Cultural Politics, 71−91. Netherlands: Rodopi.

Swain, S. 2010. ‘Australia’. In Brigitte Bechtold and Donna Cooper Graves (eds). An Encyclopedia of Infanticide, 24−27. Lewiston: The Edwin Mellen Press.

Swain, S. 2012. ‘Market forces: Defining the adoptable child, 1860–1940’. Social Policy and Society 11.3: 399–414.

Swain, S. 2012. ‘Snapshots from the long history of adoption in Australia’. Australian Journal of Adoption 6 (12): n. pag. (Papers of the 10th Australian Adoption Conference.) At: http://www.nla.gov.au/openpublish/index.php/aja/article/view/2550/2996

Swain, S., Howe, R. 1995. Single Mothers and Their Children: Disposal, Punishment and Survival in Australia. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.

Swain, S., Hillel, M. 2010. Child, nation, race and empire: Child rescue discourse, England, Canada and Australia, 1850–1915. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Winkler, R., Van Keppel, M. 1984. Relinquishing Mothers in Adoption: Their Long Term Adjustment. Melbourne: Institute of Family Studies.

Indigenous Adoption

Aboriginal Child Care Agency, 1978. History and First Twelve Months of ACCA’s Operation. Fitzroy, Vic.: Victorian Aboriginal Child Care Agency.

Adelaide, D. 1996/1997. ‘Brown skin babies: An essay, recollection of feelings at the damage done to Aboriginal Australians over the years’. Southerly 56 (4): 7–18.

Armitage, A. 1995. Comparing the Policy of Aboriginal Assimilation: Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Askham, H. 1986. Aboriginal health issues: Our children and the bureaucracy. In Women’s Health in a Changing Society: 1985 Conference Proceedings, Vol. 2, Adelaide: Organising Committee, Second National Women’s Health Conference, pp. 30–35.

Atkinson, G. 1983. Aboriginal adoption: A re-evaluation. In R. Snow, (ed). Understanding Adoption: A Practical Guide. Sydney: Fontana Books.

Atkinson, G.J. 1991. Report on the Joint National Review of Aboriginal and Islander Child Care Agencies [AICCAs] (Report to the Ministers for Aged, Family and Health Services and Aboriginal Affairs, January 1991).

Australian Broadcasting Commission, 1990. Savage Indictment. VHS, 52 mins, Australian Broadcasting Commission.

Ban, P. 1989. The Application of the Queensland Adoption Act 1964–1988 to the Traditional Adoption Practice of Torres Strait Islanders. MA thesis, Department of Social Work, University of Melbourne.

Ban, P. 1990. The Tree of Life: Report to the Queensland Government on Legal Recognition of Torres Strait Islander Customary Adoption. Prepared for the LINA Torres Strait Islander Corporation, Queensland.

Ban, P. 1993. ‘Torres Strait Islander family life’. Family Matters 35: 16–17.

Ban, P. 1993. ‘The influence of indigenous perspectives of ‘family’ on some aspects of Australian and New Zealand child welfare practice’. Children Australia 18 (1): 20–22.

Ban, P. 1993. ‘The quest for legal recognition of Torres Strait Islander customary adoption practice’. Aboriginal Law Bulletin 2 (60): 4–5.

Ban, P. 1994. ‘Customary ‘adoption’ in the Torres Strait Islands: Towards legal recognition’. Aboriginal Law Bulletin 5. http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/AboriginalLawB/1994/5.html

Ban, P. 1996. ‘Developments in the legal recognition of Torres Strait Islander customary adoption’. Aboriginal Law Bulletin 3 (78): 14–15. http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/AboriginalLawB/1996/5.html

Briskman, L. 2001. Aboriginal Activism and the Stolen Generations: the Story of SNAICC. PhD thesis, Department of Social Work, Monash University.

Briskman, L. 2001. ‘Beyond apologies: The stolen generations and the churches’. Children Australia 26 (3): 4–8.

Briskman, L. 2003. The Black Grapevine: Aboriginal Activism and the Stolen Generations. Sydney: Federation Press.

Buti, T. 1995. ‘They took the children away [Western Australian project to redress some of the harm caused by removal of Aboriginal children from their families]’. Alternative Law Journal 20 (1): 35–36.

Buti, A. 2002. Australian Aboriginal Child Separations and Guardianships. Oxford: Oxford Univesity Press.

Buti, A. 2004. Separated: Australian Aboriginal Childhood Separations and Guardianship Law. Sydney: Sydney Institute of Criminology.

Butler, B. 1989. ‘Adopting an Indigenous approach’. Adoption and Fostering 13: 27–31.

Butler, B. 1990. ‘Aboriginal children and the international convention on the rights of the child’. Children Australia, 15 (2): 15.

Butler, B. 1992. ‘Aboriginal child protection’. In G. Calvert, A. Ford, P. Parkinson, (eds), The Practice of Child Protection: Australian Approaches. Sydney: Hale and Iremonger, 14–19.

Butler, B. 1993. ‘Our responsibility for our children’s future’. Paper presented at the International Year of the World’s Indigenous Peoples Conference, Wollongong, December.

Butler, B. 1993. ‘Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children: Present and future services and policy’. Children Australia 18(1): 4–8.

Butler, B. 1993, ‘Aboriginal Children: Back to Origins’, in Family Matters 35: 7–12.

Butler, B. 1994. ‘Aboriginal children: Still in terra nullius’. Rights Now 2 (3): 1–2.

Celermajer, D. 1998. ‘A sorry nation?’. Arena Magazine 36: 35–40.

Chisholm, R. 1982. ‘Aboriginal self-determination and child welfare: A case conference’. Australian Journal of Social Issues 17: 258.

Chisholm, R. 1982. ‘Child care, Aboriginal children and permanency planning: A sceptical view’. In R. Oxenberry, (ed) Changing Families: Proceedings of the Third Australian Conference on Adoption, Adelaide, May, p. 76.

Chisholm, R. 1983. ‘Aboriginal children: Political pawns or paramount consideration?’ In J. Jarrah (ed) Child Welfare: Current Issues and Future Directions, Social Welfare Research Centre, University of NSW, Seminar, 6 July, p.43.

Chisholm, R. 1985. ‘Destined children: Aboriginal child welfare in Australia: Directions of change’. Law and Policy, Aboriginal Law Bulletin, 14 (June): 6–8, continued in Aboriginal Law Bulletin, 15 (August): 7–8.

Chisholm, R. 1985. Black Children: White Welfare? Aboriginal Child Welfare Law and Policy Report in New South Wales, Social Welfare Research Centre, University of NSW, Reports and Proceedings No. 52, April.

Chisholm, R. 1988, ‘Aboriginal children and the placement principle’. Aboriginal Law Bulletin 2 (April): 4–7.

Choo, C. 1990. Aboriginal Child poverty. Child Poverty Policy Review No. 2. Melbourne: Brotherhood of St Lawrence.

Crawford, J.R., Howarth, J.M. 1982. ‘Aboriginal customary law: Child custody, fostering and adoption’. Australian Law Reform Commission: Research Paper.

Cummings, B. 1990. Take This Child. Canberra: Aborigines Studies Press.

Cunneen, C. 1999. ‘Criminology, genocide and the forced removal of indigenous children from their families’. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology 32 (2): 124–138.

Current Family Law. 1997. ‘Residence and parental responsibility: Cultural origins: inter-distinctiveness of Aboriginal cultures’. Current Family Law 3 (3): 132–134.

Cuthbert, D. 2001. ‘Holding the baby: Questions arising from research into the experiences of non-Aboriginal adoptive and foster mothers of Aboriginal children’. Social Semiotics 11 (2): 139–154.

Cuthbert, D. 2001. ‘Stolen children, invisible mothers and unspeakable stories: The experiences of non-Aboriginal adoptive and foster mothers of Aboriginal children’. Social Semiotics 11 (2): 139–154.

Cuthbert, D. 2000. ‘Mothering the ‘other’: Feminism, colonialism and the experiences of non-adoptive mothers of Aboriginal children’. Balayi : Culture, Law and Colonialism 1 (1): 31–49.

D’Souza, N. 1989. ‘An Aboriginal and Islander perspective’. Australian Journal of Early Childhood 14: 31.

D’Souza, N. 1990. ‘Aboriginal children: The challenge for the end of the millennium’. Children Australia 15 (2): 14.

D’Souza, N. 1993. ‘Aboriginal child welfare: Framework for a national policy’. Family Matters (35): 40.

D’Souza, N. 1994. ‘The Secretariat of the National Aboriginal and Islander Child Care’. Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal 18: 27.

D’Souza, N. 1995. ‘Call for a national inquiry into the removal of Aboriginal children’. Impact (April): 1.

Gilbert, S. 1993. ‘The effects of colonisation on Aboriginal families: Issues and strategies for child welfare policies’. In J. Mason, (ed). Child Welfare Policy: Critical Australian Perspectives. Sydney: Hale & Iremonger.

Godfrey, K. 1995. ‘The lost Kooris: A history of Aboriginal child welfare policies in New South Wales’. Alternative Law Journal 20 (1): 26.

Haebich, A. 2000. Broken Circles: Fragmenting Indigenous Families 1800–2000. Fremantle: Fremantle Arts Centre Press.

Harris, J. 1991. Report to the Child Protection Policy and Planning Unit South Australia on the Child Protection Project from the Ngaanyatjarra, Pitjantjatjara, Yankunytjatjara Women’s Council, Adelaide.

Heilpern, S., Heilpern, H., Bolt, S., and Clancy, A. 1994. Evaluation of Departmental Services for Child Protection: Aboriginal Clients. Sydney: Department of Community Services.

Jackson, B. (ed). 1979. The First Aboriginal Child Survival Seminar (If Everyone Cared): A Report Arising from an International Seminar on Aboriginal Family Life and the Welfare of Aboriginal Children, Melbourne, 23–25 April.

Kendall, C. 1995. ‘History, present and future: Issues affecting Aboriginal adults who were removed as children from their families under the NSW Aborigines Protection Act 1883–1969’. In Has Adoption A Future? Proceedings of the Fifth Australian Adoption Conference. Sydney: Post Adoption Resource Centre.

Kendall, C., Clayton-Bown, B., Read, P. 1995. Link Up, Lawson, NSW: Link-Up (NSW) Aboriginal Corporation.

Manchester, W., Bannister, J. 1999. Wendy Manchester, interviewed by John Bannister in the Bringing them Home Oral History Project, (Audiobook). Bringing them Home Oral History Project.

Mellor, D., Haebich, A. (eds). 2002. Many Voices: Reflections on Experiences of Indigenous Child Separation. Canberra: National Library of Australia.

Merkel, R. 1990. ‘Government Culpability for the Forced Removal of Aboriginal Children from their Families’. Aboriginal Law Bulletin 2 (47): 4–5.

Nicholson, A. 1995. Indigenous customary law and family law’. Family Matters 42: 24–29.

Nile, R., Haebich, A., Huggins, J. (eds). 1998. Who Will Look After the Children? St Lucia: University of Queensland Press.

O’Connor, I. 1993. Aboriginal child welfare law: Policies and practices in Queensland, 1865–1989’. Australian Social Work 46 (3): 11–22.

Read, P. 1981. The Stolen Generations: The Removal of Aboriginal Children in New South Wales 1833–1969. Sydney: Government Printer.

Read, P. 1999. A Rape of the Soul so Profound: The Return of the Stolen Generations. St Leonards: Allen & Unwin.

Special Broadcasting Service. 2008.First Australians: The Untold Story of Australia, DVD. Melbourne: Madman Entertainment

Sommerlad, E. 1976. ‘Home for Blacks, Aboriginal community and adoption: Report of the workshop on Aboriginal community and adoption, 1976’. First Australian Conference on Adoption, Sydney, February. Canberra: Centre for Continuing Education, Australian National University.

Spry, I. 1999. ‘Aboriginal children taken under government care: Further facts justifying welfare officers’. National Observer 40: 56–59.

Swain, S. “‘Homes are sought for these children’. Locating Adoption Within the Australian Stolen Generations Narrative.” American Indian Quarterly 37 (2013, forthcoming).

Wilkinson, D. 1994. ‘Aboriginal child placement principle: Customary law recognition and further legislative reform’. Aboriginal Law Bulletin 3 (71): 13–15.

Young, S. 1998. ‘The long way home: Reparation for the removal of Aboriginal children’. University of Queensland Law Journal 20 (1): 70–89.

Inter-Country Adoption

Armstrong, S., Slaytor, P. 2001. The Colour of Difference: Journeys in Transracial Adoption. Sydney: Federation Press.

Australian Journal of Family Law. 1993. ‘Convention on Inter-Country Adoptions’. Australian Journal of Family Law7 (3): 187–190.

Bayes, H. 1993 ‘Protecting Children in Intercountry Adoption’. Adoption Australia(Summer): 9.

Benson, C., Hampson, R., Eastern Sydney Area Health Service (NSW), Staff Development Centre, Audiovisual Resource Department, Inter-Country Adoptive Parents Working Party. 1989. Aussie Kids –Adopted from Overseas. Broadway, NSW: Inter-Country Adoptive Parents Working Party.

Blancher, T. 1980. Resettlement of Unattached Refugee Children in Victoria, 1975–1979. Melbourne: Clearing House on Migration Issues.

Bojorge, C. 2002. ‘Inter-country adoptions: in the best interests of the child?’ Law and Justice Journal 2 (2): 266–291.

Bopage, L. 2003. ‘Maintaining Sri Lankan traditions’. Canberra Historical Journal 52: 37–39.

Briand, R. 1973. The Waifs. Melbourne: Rena Briand.

Calder, R. 1978. Families for Children: A Study of the Adoption Experience of Older Age Foreign Born Children and Their Australian Families. BA Honours thesis, Monash University.

Carney, Terry, ‘Overseas Adoptions. The Best Interests of the Child in Solomon’s Jungle’, Legaldat (LegalDate Supplement, June 1989).

Charlesworth, S. 1993. ‘Ensuring the rights of children in inter-country adoption: Australian attitudes to access to adoption information’. In John Eekelaar and Petar Šarčević (eds), Parenthood in Modern Society: Legal and Social Issues for the Twenty-first Century, 251–265. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff.

Choularton, K. 1977. ‘Inter-country adoption: Some psychological problems. Seminar on inter-country adoption, University of Adelaide, 9–10 July, Proceedings, pp. 39–41. Adelaide: Department of Adult Education, University of Adelaide.

Clair, S. ‘Child trafficking and Australia’s interCountry adoption system’, University of Queensland Human Trafficking Working Group research paper, January 2012. At www.law.uq.edu.au/humantrafficking.

Committee Bulletin. 2005. ‘The heartache of the Queensland adoption process’. Committee Bulletin 16 (9): 1–2.

Commonwealth Law Bulletin. 1997. ‘Inter-country adoption and parent support groups’. Commonwealth Law Bulletin 23 (1& 2): 290–305.

Conin, K. 2001. ‘Primary consideration: Children’s rights in Australian immigration law’. In Melinda Jones and Lee Ann Basser Marks, (eds). Children on the Agenda: The Rights of Australian Children, 147–162. St Leonards, NSW: St Prospect Media Pty Ltd.

Cooper, D. 2004. ‘Same sex couples, marriage and overseas adoption’. Queensland Lawyer 25 (1): 7–8.

Cox, D. (ed), April 1986. Intercountry Adoption. Melbourne: International Social Service Australian Branch and Dept of Social Studies, University of Melbourne.

Crawford, J. 1977. ‘Inter-country adoption: The legal aspects’. In Proceedings of the Seminar on Inter-Country Adoption, University of Adelaide, 9–10 July, 1977, pp. 52–62. Adelaide: Department of Adult Education, University of Adelaide.

Cuthbert, D. (ed). 2012. The Vietnam Inheritance. Special issue of Journal of Australian Studies 36 (4).

Cuthbert, D. (ed). 2012Waiting for a Better World: Critical and Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Intercountry Adoption, Themed section of Social Policy and Society 11 (3).

Cuthbert, D., Swain, S. Quartly, M. 2010. ‘Interdisciplinary perspectives on intercountry adoption in Australia’ (Workshop summary). At http://www.assa.edu.au/programs/workshop/workshop.php?id=79

Cuthbert, D., Spark, C., Murphy K. 2010. ‘“That was then, but this is now”. Historical perspectives on intercountry and domestic child adoption in Australian public policy’. Journal of Historical Sociology 23 (3): 427–452.

Current Family Law. 2000. ‘Amendments to the family law (Hague Convention on Inter-country Adoption) regulations’. Current Family Law 6 (1): 4–6.

Dalton, R., O’Donnell, L. 1999. ‘Tapping into China’s baby market’. The Australian, 6 March, 7.

del Dastillo, L. 2004. Social work and international collaboration in child placement. Paper presented at the 8th Australian Conference on Adoption.

Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs. Public Affairs Section. 2002. Adopting Children from Overseas, Canberra: DIMIA.

Dobbie, M. Van den Elshout, M. 2004. ‘Adopting Xiaolian: Personal experiences of intercountry adoption’. Australian Mosaic 7: 33–34.

Douglas-Henry, J., Thorburn, C., Cummins, J., Flynn, J., Australian Film Finance Commission, Iris Pictures, Heiress Films, SBS Independent, Film Australia Pty Ltd, 2002. From Korea with Love (VHS, 52 minutes). Lindfield, NSW: Film Australia.

English, B. 1990. ‘Intercountry Adoptions—The context of recent developments and the need for research’. Children Australia 15 (1) (March): 16–20.

Forkert, J. 2012. Orphans of Vietnam: A History of Intercountry Adoption Policay and Practice in Australia, 1968–75. PhD University of Adelaide.

Forkert, J. 2012.Refugees, orphans and a basket of cats: the politics of Operation Babylift.” In Denise Cuthbert (ed), The Vietnam Inheritance. Special issue of Journal of Australian Studies 36 (4): 427–444.

Fopp, P. A. 1978. ‘Adoption Legislation and Practice in Australia’. A paper prepared by the Australian delegration of social welfare authorities to certain South-East Asian countries for talks on Inter-country adoption matters, August 1978.

[Fopp, P. A.] 1978. Report ‘Australian delegation on inter-country adoption to certain Asian countries’, December 1978.

Fopp, P. A. 1980. ‘The Australian Uniform Inter-country adoption programme’. A report prepared by the Commonweathwealth/State ICA Committee for the Conference of Social Welfare Administrators, 21 March 1980.

Fopp, P.A. 1980. Intercountry Adoption: Australia’s Position. Adelaide: Department of Community Welfare.

Fopp, P.A. 1982. ‘Inter-country adoption: Australia’s position’. Australian Journal of Social Issues 17: 50–61.

Fopp, P.A. 1992. ‘The rights of the child in inter-country adoption’. Paper presented to the Inter-country adoption workshop of the Third Australian Conference on Adoption, Adelaide, 17 May. Adelaide: University of Adelaide.

Fronek, P. 2009. Understanding the Emergence, Diffusion and Continuance of Intercountry Adoption from South Korea to Queensland, Australia. PhD thesis, School of Social Work and Human Services, University of Queensland.

Fronek, P. 2012. “Operation Babylift: Advancing intercountry adoption in Australia.” Journal of Australian Studies 36(4): 445–458.

Fronek, P., Cuthbert D. 2012. ‘History repeating . . . Disaster-related intercountry adoption and the psychosocial care of children’. Social Policy and Society 11(3): 429–442.

Fronek, P., Cuthbert, D. 2012. ‘The future of inter-country adoption: A paradigm shift for this century.” International Journal of Social Welfare 21(2): 215–224.

Gerhmann, R. 2005. ‘Promoting a multi-racial Australia: Population policy and inter-country adoption’. The Australian Quarterly 77 (4): 13–18.

Gill, A., Rack, R. 2004. ‘Young refugees from Hitler’s Germany’. Address to The Sydney Institute on 11 October 2004. Published as ‘Young refugees in Australia’. The Sydney Papers 16 (4): 94–106.

Gray, K. M. ‘Bananas, Bastards and Victims’? Hybrid Reflections on Cultural Belonging in Intercountry Adoptee Narratives. PhD thesis, University of Newcastle, 2007.

Harper, J. 1987. ‘Inter-country adoption of older children in Australia’. Adoption Australia 9: 4–9.

Harper, J., Bonanno, H. 1993. ‘Racial awareness and racist attitudes in Inter-country adoption’. Australian Journal of Early Childhood 18 (3): 28–34.

Harvey, I, 1982. ‘Transracial adoption in Australia’. Adoption and Fostering 6 (1): 43–49.

Harvey, I.J. 1981. Australian Parents for Vietnamese Children: A Social and Psychological Study of Inter-Country Adoption. Sydney: Department of Youth and Community Services.

Harvey, I.J. 1984. ‘Adoption of Vietnamese children: An Australian study’. Australian Journal of Social Issues 18: 55–69.

Hansberger, R. A. C. 1988. ‘Inter-country adoption: Society’s responsibilities to children adopted into cultures other than their own. Paper presented to a seminar, Perth, and to International Conference on Adoption and Permanent Care, Melbourne, November 1988’. Australian Child and Family Welfare 13 (4): 3–6.

Henderson, K. ‘Ethics in human service organisations’, In Ethical Practice in Government: Improving Organisational Management, 1996, p.43–51.

Inter-Country Adoptive Parents Working Party, NSW Committee on Adoption Inc. 2002. Going it Alone, Intercountry Adoptees Grown Up (VHS Video). Sydney:Art Resistance [for the Intercountry Adoptive Parents Working Party].

Jaffe, E. D. ( ed.). 1995. Inter-country Adoptions: Laws and Perspectives of “Sending” Countries. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

Kane, S. 1993. ‘The movement of children for international adoption: An epidemiological perspective’. The Social Science Journal 30 (4): 323–339.

Le, D. Barrow, H., Grieve, A. 2005. Operation Babylift (DVD, 52 mins), Lindfield, NSW: Film Australia.

Madden, R. 1992. ‘Red Tape Maroons Children (letter)’. The Australian, 22 May: 18.

Martin, D. [2007?]. ‘Inter country Adoption in Australia’, ISS Australian Branch. http://www.iss.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/ISSAustralia-Intercountry_Adoption_in_Australia.pdf

Mason, B., Mason, G. 1998. Little Brother, Little Sister (VHS 52 minutes). Produced by Australian Film Finance Corporation & Alfred Road Films Pty Ltd. Lindfield, NSW: Film Australia.

Mason, B., Mullane, M., Film Australia, Iris Pictures. 2006. Growing Up and Going Home, (Video). Lindfield, NSW: Film Australia.

McCarthy, A. 1994. Factors Influencing Client Satisfaction with the Inter-country Adoption Experience. Melbourne: Australian Society for Inter-country Aid (Children).

McGowan, B. 1977. ‘The case of inter-country adoption’. Proceedings of the Seminar on inter-country adoption, University of Adelaide, 9–10 July, 3–19. Adelaide: Department of Adult Education, University of Adelaide.

Murphy, K., Pinto, S., Cuthbert, D. 2010. ‘“These infants are future Australians”: Making the nation through intercountry adoption.” Journal of Australian Studies 34(2): 141–161.

Nguyen, T. H. and Vinh, P. Committee for the Preparation for Vietnamese Reading Materials, 1984. The Adopted Children in the Kelly Family, Nhu’ng du’a con nuôi trong gia dình Kelly. Melbourne: Committee for the Preparation of Vietnamese Reading Materials by Vietnamese Language and Culture Publications.

Pasipanodya, M. 2002. ‘A family for us: Autobiography of Fijian immigrant Madu Pasipanodya’. In Myra Jean Bourke, Susanne Holzknecht and Annie Bartlett (eds), Weaving a Double Cloth: Stories of Asia-Pacific Women in Australia, 113–125. Canberra: Pandanus Books.

Picton, C., Calder, R. 1982. ‘Adoption. Inter-country adoption policy in Australia—the abnegation of responsibility’. Australian Child and Family Welfare Quarterly 7 (2): 10–13.

Rollings, J. 1994. ‘The intercountry adoptee and immigration health requirements’. Adoption Australia, Winter: 5–8.

Selman, P. 2002. ‘Intercountry adoption in the new millennium: The “quiet migration” revisited’. Population Research and Policy Review 21: 205–225.

Selman, P. 2006. ‘Trends in intercountry adoption: Analysis of data from 20 receiving countries, 1998–2004’. Journal of Population Research 23 (2): 183–204.

Smith, M.A., Konwicki, J., SBS-TV. 1989. Pick Up the Child (VHS Video, 23 minutes). SBS-TV, Milsons Point, NSW.

Susskind, A. 2004. ‘Bringing over baby’. The Bulletin 8 June, 122 (6424): 30.

Taft, M., Dreyfus, K., Quartly M., Cuthbert., D. Spring 2013 . ‘“I knew who I was not, but not who I was”. Public storytelling in the lives of Australian adoptees’. Oral History (UK) 41(1).

Taylor, R. 1990. ‘Inter-country adoption, WA’. Adoption Australia Winter: 14–18.

Telfer, J., and Telfer, J. 1986. Bridges: A Guide for Those Associated with Building a Korean-Australian family through Adoption in South Australia. Adelaide: Korean Friendship Group Inc. (SA).

Telfer, J. 2003. ‘The imagined child: Ambiguity and agency in Australian inter-country adoption’. Australian Journal of Anthropology 14 (1): (72)–79.

Turner, N. J. 1995. ‘Why don’t you take more of our children?’ Law Institute Journal 69 (6): 559–561, 563.

Tudball. L., nd. Little Brother, Little Sister—Study Guide. Lindfield, NSW: Film Australia. Electronic version available at http://www.filmaust.com.au/programs/teachers_notes/8094littlebrolittlesis.pdf.

Unicef’s position on inter-country adoption. nd. http://www.unicef.org/media/media_41918.html

West, R. 1989. ‘Whatever happened to the best interests of the child?’ The Age, 11 August, p.22.

Williams, I. 2004. ‘New dimensions to old identities [Immigration experiences of adopted Vietnamese]’. Adoption Australia Autumn: 6–8.

Willing, I. A. W[illiams]. 2010. Transnational Adoption and Constructions of Identity and Belonging: A Qualitative Study of Australian Parents of Children Adopted from Overseas. PhD thesis, University of Queensland.

Willing, I., Fronek P., Cuthbert. D. 2012. ‘Review of sociological literature on intercountry adoption’. Social Policy and Society 11(3): 465–479.

Wilson, B. ‘Treating people like babies: intercountry adoptions’. Legal Service Bulletin 14 (4): 188–190.

Law and Law Reform

International

Alston, P., Brennan G. (eds), 1991. The U.N. Children’s Convention and Australia. Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, ANU Centre for International and Public Law, Australian Council of Social Service.

Australian Journal of Family Law, 1991. ‘Adoption Information Act, 1990’. Australian Journal of Family Law 5 (2): 99–102.

Bates, F. 1989. ‘The children of Mansoul: Adopted children and natural parents: some comparative developments’. Australian Law Journal 63 (5): 314–326.

Degeling, J. 2003. ‘Inter-country adoption in international law: National report for Australia’. Colloque Sur L’Adoption Internationale En Droit Compare, Paris, 25–26 Avril, 1–35.

Degeling, J. 1993. ‘Inter-country adoption: A new convention for Australia?’ Australian Law Librarian 1 (5): 214–218.

Fletcher, B. 1991. ‘‘Trans-Tasman’ family law: First impressions of a New Zealand family solicitor practising in Australia’. New Zealand Law Journal, September: 300–304.

Harvey, I. J., Dolgopol, U., Castell-McGregor, S. (eds). 1993. Implementing the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child in Australia. Adelaide: South Australian Children’s Interests Bureau.

Kirby, M. D. 1993. ‘The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Declaration of the Rights of the Child as part of international law and municipal law’. Paper presented at First World Congress on Family Law and Human Rights, Sydney, 4–9 July.

Lurvey, I. H., Rutkin, A.H. 1993. ‘First World Congress on family law and children’s rights’. Family Advocate 15 (4): 14–16.

Turner, J. N. 1992. ‘The Rights of the Child under the U.N. Convention: Some Lessons from Europe’. Law Institute Journal 66 (1–2): 38–45.

National

Australian Journal of Family Law, 1991. ‘Adoption Information Act 1990’. Australian Journal of Family Law 5 (2): 99–102.

Ball, C. 2002. ‘Regulating inclusivity: Reforming adoption law for the 21st century’. Child and Family Social Work 7: 285–296.

Bailey-Harris, R. 1986. ‘Re F and the jurisdiction of the Family Court in Australia’. Australian Law Journal 60, December: 659–667.

Clair, S. 2010, ‘Taking into account “The Best Interests of the Child” in the Australian intercountry adoption system: An analysis of the principle, practice and persuasive force of a much-debated legal phrase’. Queensland Law Student Review 3 (1): 38–55. http://www.law.uq.edu.au/documents/qlsr/recent-issues/vol3/issue1/Clair_2010_vol3_i1.pdf

Commonwealth Law Journal, 1990. ‘Adoption Information Act 1990: Review’. Commonwealth Law Bulletin 19 (3), July: 1048–1050.

Commonwealth Law Journal, 1990. ‘Adoption of Children Act 1965: Review’. Commonwealth Law Journal 19 (3), July: 1047–1048.

Do Campo, Consuelo, 2013. ‘Perfectly legal illegal adoptions: A critical examination of Australia’s approach to duly informed consent when converting adoptions under the Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption’. Honours thesis, ANU College of Law, Australian National University.

Finlay, H. 1988. ‘Constitutional law—family law—interaction between the Federal exercise of the marriage power and State power over adoption—suggested supremacy of marriage power’. Australian Law Journal 62 (5): 392–394.

Hambly, D. 1967–68. ‘Adoption of Children—An Appraisal of the Uniform Acts’. University of Western Australia Law Review 8 (3): 281–318.

Harland, A[lexandra]. Outside the Nuclear Family: Same Sex Law Reforms and Notions of Parenthood’. Undated online paper, accessed March 2013. (updating an article published in Current Family Law Journal [2009]) http://www.library.usyd.edu.au/libraries/law/lpab/LibraryResourcesLists/harland.pdf

Jessep, O., Chisholm, R. 1992. ‘Step-parent adoptions and the Family Law Act’. Australian Journal of Family Law 6 (2): 179–187.

Parkinson, P. .Decision-making about the best interests of the child: The impact of the two tiers’, Australian Journal of Family Law 20 179–186.

Singer, M. 1991. ‘Intercountry adoption: dilemmas in law and procedure’, Law Institute Journal 65(5): 374–377.

Turner, N. 1995. ‘Adoption or anti-adoption: Time for a national review of Australian law’. James Cook University Law Review (2): 43–81.

Williams, D. 1996. Family Law: Future Directions, National Press Club Address, 15 October, pp. 1–25

Working Party of the Family Court, 1996. Representing The Child’s Interests In the Family Court of Australia: Report to the Chief Justice of the Family Court of Australia, September.

ACT

Hale, S. 1993. ‘Adoption Information Act’. Law Society of the Australian Capital Territory Gazette 143, February: 47–48.

Hale, S. 1992. ‘Commission recommends maintenance of open approach to adoption: some modifications warranted’. Law Society Journal, 30 (11), December: 48.

Wallace, M. 1994. ‘Substitute parent agreements in the ACT’. Canberra Law Review, 1(1), November: 148–152.

New South Wales

Anderson, M. 1997. Adoption Laws in New South Wales. Sydney: LAAMS Publications.

Australian Journal of Family Law, 1993. ‘Adoption Information: Review of NSW Act’. Australian Journal of Family Law 7 (1), April: 1–2.

Chisholm, R. 1997. ‘Review of the Adoption of Children Act, 1965 (NSW)’. Australian Journal of Family Law 11 (2), July: 131–132.

Chisholm, R. 1980. ‘End of uniformity: New adoption laws for NSW’. Legal Service Bulletin 5 (2), April: 49–51.

College of Law (Sydney, NSW). 1988. The New Law of Adoptions: Being Papers Presented by the Continuing Legal Education Department of the College of Law on Friday, 25 March 1988. Sydney: CLE Department of the College of Law.

College of Law (Sydney NSW). 1991. The New Adoption Legislation: Being Papers Presented by the Continuing Legal Education Department of the College of Law on Friday 5 April 1991. Sydney: The College.

Hambly, D., Chart, J. 1980. ‘The Adoption of Children (amendment) Act 1980 (N.S.W.)’. Australian Current Law, September: 39, 42.

Hambly, D; Chart, J. 1980. ‘An adoption tribunal for New South Wales’. Australian Current Law, July: 29, 31.

Law Society. 1982. ‘Foreign orders of adoption’. Law Society Journal 20 (5), June: 357. [Brief note that s.46 (2) b of the Adoption of Children Act 1965 has been repealed]

Litherland, J.C. 1940. The Law Relating to Child Welfare Affiliation and Adoptions (Child Welfare Act 1939) with Annotations, Regulations and Forms made under the Child Welfare Act, 1939, and Rules and Forms made by the Supreme Court of NSW for use in Adoption Proceedings. Sydney: Law Book Co of Australasia.

Otlawski, M. 1998. ‘Casenotes: NSW Supreme Court approves adoption of child born under surrogacy arrangement: W: Re adoption’. Current Family Law 4 (6) December: 270–273.

Smith, D. [1988], 1991. ‘The new adoption process’. Paper Presented by the Continuing Legal Education Department of the College of Law on Friday 25 March 1988 and substantially updated for presentation on Friday 5 April 1991. Sydney: College of Law.

Smith, D. 1994. Developments in the Law of Adoptions: Papers presented for the Continuing Legal Education Department of the College of Law on Friday 18th November 1994. Sydney: Continuing Legal Education Department, College of Law.

Smith, D. 1995. ‘The Law of Adoptions’. Paper presented to the Continuing Legal Education Department of the College of Law, Saturday 6 November, Gold Coast, Qld. Updated for presentation on Wednesday 31st May 1995 in Newcastle. Sydney: The Department.

Squire, M. 1991. ‘Adoption information and the question of privacy’. Law Society Journal 29 (7), August: 69–72.

Starke, J.G. 1991. ‘The New South Wales Adoption Information Act, 1990’. Australian Law Journal 65 (7), July: 371–372.

Turner, N.J. 1993. ‘Review of the Adoption Information Act 1990 (NSW), July 1992. New South Wales Law Reform Commission Report No 69’. Monash University Law Review 19 (2): 343–354.

Tupman, R. 1992. ‘Family law applications involving children: Children outside the Family Court jurisdiction’. Paper presented by the Continuing Legal Education Department of the College of Law, Saturday, 30 November 1991 and Saturday, 28 November, 1992. Sydney: CLE Department of the College of Law.

Australian Law Reform Commission. 1990. ‘New adoption law: The response to social change’. Reform 59, July: 136–138.

Queensland  

Volard, J. 1983, Access to Information: An Issue of Adoption Legislation in Queensland, Legal Service Bulletin, 8 (1): 37–38.

Volard, J. 1982, Framing adoption legislation in Queensland: Children with special needs’, Legal Services Bulletin, 7 (5), October: 246–247.

Tasmania

Otlawski, M. 1989. The Changing Face of Adoption Law in Tasmania, in Australian Journal of Family Law, 3 (2) June, pp. 161–183.

Buxton, C. 2003. Adoption by Same Sex Couples, Final Report No. 2. Hobart: Tasmania Law Reform Institute.http://www.law.utas.edu.au/reform/docs/AdoptionFinRepA4.pdf

Buxton, C., Warner, K. 2003. Adoption by Same Sex Couples. Hobart: Tasmania Law Reform Institute.

Victoria

Bourke, J. P., Fogarty, J. 1962. Maintenance, Custody and Adoption Law, Comprising Maintenance, Custody and Adoption Under the Maintenance Act 1958 and Adoption of Children Act 1958 of Victoria, and Maintenance and Custody Under the Commonwealth Matrimonial Causes Act 1959. Melbourne: Butterworths.

Bourke, J.P., Fogarty, J. 1972. Bourke and Fogarty’s Maintenance custody and adoption law: Comprising marriage, custody and adoption under the Maintenance act 1965 of Victoria, Marriage act 1958 of Victoria and Adoption of children act 1964 of Victoria, and maintenance and custody under the Commonwealth matrimonial causes act 1959–1966. Melbourne: Butterworths.

Harper, P. 1982. Changing Laws for Changing Families. Discussion Paper, no. 9. Melbourne: Institute of Family Studies.

Harper, P. 1981. ‘Adoption law reform: In search of self-identity—access to information’. Legal Service Bulletin 6 (1) February: 52–53.

Institute of Family Studies; Family Information Centre. 1983. Legal Aspect of Adoption, September, 1983. Melbourne: Institute of Family Studies.

Jaggs, D. Neglected and criminal: Foundations of Child Welfare Legislation in Victoria. Centre for Youth and Community Studies, PIT.

Law Institute, 1984. ‘Start new jurisdiction—stop adoption distinction’. Law Institute Journal 58 (10), October: 1129.

Law Institute. 1988. ‘Legal options for step-parents and relatives caring for children’. Law Institute Journal 62 (3), March: 157–159.

Law Institute. 2002. ‘Family law in spotlight’. Law Institute Journal 76 (11), December: 81.

Law Institute. 2005. ‘Recognising all parents’. Law Institute Journal 79 (9), September: 80.

Leo Cussen Institute; Law Institute of Victoria. 1986. Adoption Laws: Recent Changes. Melbourne: Leo Cussen Institute and the Law Institute of Victoria.

Meggitt, M. 1991. The Role of Self Help in the Development of Public Policy: An Analysis of the Victorian 1984 Adoption of Children Act. MA thesis, Department of Politics,Monash University.

National Council for the Single Mother and her Child. 1977. Adoption of Children Act: Access to Information Concerning Adoption: A Submission to Statute Law Revision Committee of the Parliament of Victoria, 12 June 1977. Warranwood, Vic.: National Council for the Single Mother and her Child.

Victorian Law Reform Commission, 2003. Assisted Reproduction & Adoption: Should the Current eligibility criteria in Victoria be changed? Consultation Paper. Melbourne: Victorian Law Reform Commission.

Victorian Law Reform Commission, 2005. Access: Assisted Reproductive Technology & Adoption. Position papers one and two. Melbourne: Victorian Law Reform Commission.

Victorian Law Reform Commission, 2007. Assisted Reproductive Technology & Adoption: Final Report. Melbourne: Victorian Law Reform Commission.

Rose-Innes, A., Mitchell, C. 1983. Legal Aspects of Adoption. Melbourne: Institute of Family Studies.

Sandor, D. 2002. ‘Victorian Law Reform enquiry into children’s rights’. Law and Policy Journal of the National Children’s and Youth Law Centre December: 14.

Shiff, P. 1992. The Adoption Act 1984 (Vic.): Intercultural Adoption and Constitutional Aspects. PhD thesis, Faculty of Law, Monash University.

Stonehouse, B. 1992. Adoption Law in Australia. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies.

Western Australia

Gupta, T. 1997. Adoption Legislative Review: Adoption Act (1994): Final Report. Perth: Family and Children’s Services.

Kendall, C.N. et al. 2000, Same Sex Relationships in Western Australia, E-Law (Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law) 7 (4), December: 1–45.

Adoption in Australia: Contemporary Debates and Issues

Albrechtsen, J. 2002. ‘Restoring adoption’. Quadrant 46: 15–20.

Armstrong, S. 2002. ‘No more secrets: Donor conception and adoption’. Australian Children’s Rights News 32: 15–17.

Australian Broadcasting Commission, 1976. Child Adoption: Discussion Arising Out of the First Australian Conference on Adoption, Sydney, February, 1976. (Sound Recording, 50 mins). Sydney: ABC Radio.

Australian Broadcasting Commission, 1988. The Adoption Triangle. (Sound Recording, 30 mins). Perth: ABC Radio.

Bates, F. 1986–87. ‘Australia: The beginning of a new phase’. Journal of Family Law 25 (1): 3–18.

Bath, H. 2000. ‘Rights and realities in the permanency debate’. Children Australia 25 (4): 13–17.

Cashmore, J. 2000. ‘What the research tells us: Permanency planning, adoption and foster care’. Children Australia 25 (4): 17–22.

Clare, M. 1991. ‘Family systems thinking and adoption practice’. Australian Social Work 44 (3): 3–13.

Fopp, P.A. 1979. Adoption in Australia: Present Status, Likely Trends and Policies. Adelaide: Department of Community Welfare.

Harper, J. 1987. ‘A current issue in adoption: The single adoptive parent’. Adoption Australia 12: 4–11.

Harper, J. 1990. ‘The good enough adoptive parent’. Mental Health in Australia 2 (4).

Harper, P. 1980. ‘In search of self-identity—access to information’. Proceedings of a seminar on adoption held at Collingwood Education Centre, Melbourne, 16 August 1980. Warranwood: National Council for the Single Mother and her Child.

Healey, J. 1999. Adoption. Sydney: Spinney Press.

Hudson, R. 2001. ‘Adoptions – facts and realities’. Indomedia Jul–Aug: 21.

Kraus, J. 1982. The Only Child as an Issue in Adoption Policy: Myth and Evidence. Sydney: Department of Youth and Community Services.

Laing, B. 1998. ‘Seeking a perfect match?’ Adoption Australia Winter: 8–10.

Learner, E. 1986. ‘Social issues common to adoption and the new reproductive technologies’. Australian Journal of Early Childhood 11 (4): 37–42.

Marburg, M. 1998. Real Parents: Confronting Adoption Issues. Melbourne: Windsor Scroll Publishing.

Millar, M. 2000. ‘The right to Know: Secrecy and donor conception’. Australian Rationalist 53: 20–24.

Mulvany, T. 1996. Current Adoption Concepts. Melbourne: Leo Cussen Institute.

Picton, C., Boss, P. 1981. ‘Philosophies and trends in Adoption’, in Picton and Boss. (eds), Child Welfare in Australia: An Introduction, 95–115. Sydney: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Powell, S. 1995. Be My Family: A Guide to Adoption in Australia. North Blackburn, Victoria: Harper Collins.

Shawyer, J. 1985. ‘The Politics of Adoption’, Healthright 5(1): 26–28.

Slaytor, P. 2002. ‘Adoption’, Descent 32(1): 8–12.

Snow, R. 1983.Understanding Adoption: A Practical Guide. Sydney: Fontana/Collins.

Tabak, S. 1999. Adoption: Myth and Reality: the Adoption Information Service in Victoria. Melbourne: Adoption Information Service, Department of Human Services..

Turner, N. J. 2000. ‘Custody and access: Are children’s interests being protected?’ Children Australia 15 (4): 13–20.

Young, P.W. 1995. ‘Adoptions’, Australian Law Journal, 69 (9): 677–678.

 

 

Project Team

Chief Investigators

Marian Quartly

Marian Quartly’s interest lies with the ideal forms of family and family relationships across twentieth century Australia as these have shaped and been shaped by the adoption experience, and the impact of these representations on gendered and racialised citizenship and national identity, drawing on the life history materials in interaction with readings of the political and administrative archive.

Denise Cuthbert

Denise Cuthbert has responsibility for researching the history of intercountry adoption (ICA) in Australia. While Denise is interested in the adoption experiences of adoptees and their families in ICA and is keen to hear from people directly involved in ICA, a major focus of her work is the political and policy aspects of ICA. She is examining the Commonwealth government’s response to the emergence of ICA from the mid-1970s, with the Saigon Baby Lift, and the management of ICA within state and territory governments from this period. Research into the state/territory management of ICA will focus primarily on Victoria and Queensland. The complex relationship between the development of ICA and the adoption reform movement, and the rise and influence of parent support organisations will also be examined, the latter in conjunction with Marian Quartly

Shurlee Swain

Shurlee Swain’s central concern is the competing narratives around adoption in Australia over time, investigating the rescue/kidnap dichotomy and arguments around adoption’s role in the changing meanings of children as family members, explored through parliamentary debates and the associated lobbying, popular representations in newspapers, magazines, film and literature (including autobiographical writing), and the experiential material derived from oral history.

Researchers

Amy Pollard, PhD candidate, School of Historical Studies, Monash University.

Kate Murphy, Research Fellow

Kathy Lothian, Research Fellow

Nell Musgrove, Research Fellow

Margaret Taft, Research Fellow

Kay Dreyfus, Research Fellow

Contact us

To contact the History of Adoption research team, please email: marian.quartly@arts.monash.edu 

 

Aims and Background

“To give you some background to our situation, we are both 37 years old and have been trying to have a family for 7.5 years … We applied through NSW Department of Community Services three years ago to adopt … a sibling group of 2 children from Ethiopia … The whole adoption process has taken between 3 and 4 years. We are still eagerly waiting to meet our children, and become a family.”

This story, told to the Commonwealth Inquiry into Overseas Adoption in April 2005, captures three themes important for our project: the driving desire of infertile couples to ‘become a family’, their identification of children as constituting ‘family’, and their growing impatience with bureaucracies seen as antagonistic to adoption. The Inquiry came down in support of these witnesses, arguing that adoption should be seen in some cases as in the best interests of the child. If implemented within Australia, this will be a significant policy reversal. Over the last century policy has swung between theoretical extremes, from totally obliterating the birth identity of adopted children in order to remake their identity in their new family, to keeping child and birth parents together at all costs. On a highly contested terrain birth parents and adopting parents have found themselves characterised alternately as heroes and as villains. Yet there is no comprehensive history of adoption in Australia which can assess past policy and practice, and speak to the dilemmas of policy makers and families involved in adoption.

This comprehensive history is being undertaken by a unique interdisciplinary team of researchers, supported by contributing historians across Australia. The central team of Quartly, Swain and Cuthbert  bring to the project a varied suite of approaches, disciplinary standpoints and research skills. Quartly is an acknowledged expert in the history of the Australian family; Swain is the leading historian of welfare practice and policy in Australia, especially children’s welfare; and Cuthbert, based in women’s studies, is a pioneer in the study of  Aboriginal adoption.

The project has four main inter-related aims:

  • To understand the distinctive ways in which adoption has reflected and shaped family ideals within Australian settler society;
  • To inform the making of future policy and practice on adoption;
  • To bring into history the stories of people whose lives have been changed by adoption, in order to acknowledge that experience and to read it against policy change; and
  • To assess and explain the historical outcomes of adoption in Australia, an enterprise significant both for academic knowledge and the making of policy.

Shaping family ideals

In Australian settler society the family has long been idealised as the source of individual happiness on one hand, and social stability and growth on the other. The shape of this family has changed dramatically, in ideal and in practice, and adoption practices have changed with it. In the early nineteenth century the family was imagined as father, mother, and many children working together in a family enterprise, and young strangers were taken in when they were old enough to work. By the early twentieth century the ideal had become a mother and a few children protected from work by a bread-winning father. Childhood came to be valued as a time of individual growth, and the ideal adopted child became the baby, taken in by a legal process which cut all ties with birth parents and remade the child as ‘kin’. By the 1980s the traditional model of father with dependent mother and children was set against one which claimed as family any people living in a parent-child relationship . This model worked against the old pattern of adoption by valuing and supporting the single mothers who had previously supplied most adopted babies. By not discriminating between different kinds of families it supported ‘open adoption’ in which birth ties were valued and maintained. It also supported same-sex and single parents seeking to adopt. But while this model was influential amongst policy makers and bureaucrats, the traditional ideal was and is fiercely defended by conservative voices in the community for whom adoption continues to be understood as a civic right for parents unable to ‘become a family’ by biological means. Recent historical work overseas has explored how adoption as it developed in Western countries came both to mirror and define the ideal contemporary conservative family. By delivering the first major historical study of changing ideas about adoption, this study will make a significant contribution to the history of the family and family ideals in a white Australia obsessed with the need for population growth.

Informing policy and practice

The project aims also to inform the making of future policy and legislation on adoption. Laws formally introducing adoption as a change of identity were passed in all states during the 1920s (with WA as a very early starter in 1896), and were strengthened in the 1960s by more or less uniform laws outlawing privately arranged adoptions. The numbers of adoptions rose slowly to the 1950s and then sharply, to a peak of almost 10,000 a year in 1972-73, the great majority being the babies of white mothers – poor mothers before WWII and overwhelmingly single mothers thereafter. These numbers were supplemented by thousands of Aboriginal children taken from their parents in the interests of racial assimilation. The process was officially understood as the ‘rescue’ of a child from a family seen as in some way inadequate, and its transfer to a better resourced family lacking only in children. The 1980s saw a sharp change of policy. Adoption laws were amended to allow, and in some states effectively require, an open style of adoption encouraging an ongoing relationship between children and birth parents (Boss and Edwards 1992). This was supported by a discourse within which ‘rescue’ tended to be characterised as a form of ‘kidnap’, denying the rights of both the birth mother and the child (Marshall and McDonald 2001). Adoptions declined to a few hundred a year by the late 1990s. As Australian-born infants became unavailable, adopting parents turned to children born overseas, initially from Vietnam and other Asian countries and then from disadvantaged countries worldwide. In 2005 the stories of those parents persuaded the government Inquiry into Overseas Adoption in Australia to condemn Australia’s ‘anti-adoption culture’ in the interests of ‘good and loving’ parents-to-be (Overseas Adoption in Australia 2005). The policy pendulum seems set to swing back towards the ‘rescue’ end of the dichotomy, making this a significant time for historians to contribute to the public debate (Quartly, Cuthbert and Murphy, 2009).

Stories of adoption experience

This project also aims to bring into the historical record the personal stories of the many women and men whose lives have been changed by adoption. Adoption has brought both joy and pain to individuals and families: sometimes, it seems, in equal measure. Observers have written of ‘the adoption triangle that locks birth parents, adopting parents and adopted children in a three way flow of love and disappointment’ (Marshall and McDonald 2001). Others characterise the ongoing debates as a ‘warzone’, with various parties operating from ‘the trenches’ (see Rosenwald 2004). The participants bear lasting wounds. We will address this ongoing pain in two ways: by establishing a national database of oral histories accessed through an interactive website, bringing the many and diverse stories told by participants to national attention; and by incorporating the many truths told in these stories into a national history of adoption which avoids the bleak kidnap-rescue dichotomy with its focus on the extinguishing and reinventing of legal identity. This dichotomy misrepresents the diversity of the adoption experience in Australia, both within the legal paradigm and across the range of less formal ways of caring for needy children which preceded and have continued to surround it. A historical explanation of the patterns of change in the adoption process requires consideration of change across a complex range of social and cultural phenomena. Alongside the crucial area of participant biography, our study will include changes in fertility, attitudes to sexuality, medical/psychological knowledge, and the professionalisation of social work. Adoption also needs to be understood as ‘imagined’, simultaneously constituting and being constituted by popular representations in novels, autobiographies, films, newspapers, magazines and professional journals . And, given the significant legal and administrative differences between the states (especially in the relations of adoption agencies to government), we will investigate change both at a national level and through case studies of particular jurisdictions.

Historical outcomes of adoption

This study will also assess the outcomes of adoption practice in Australia, as it has shaped both individual lives and society. Sociologists in Australia and abroad  have addressed the question: Has adoption been a success, or a failed experiment in social engineering? We will draw on their measurements of satisfaction and psychological stability to inform our study, but we see a historical account as offering a more rounded assessment. We will ask different questions, drawing upon different sources; crucially upon the stories of participants. What meanings and values have been attached to adoption in Australian society? How has the practice of adoption changed as it reflected these new meanings and values? And how has this changing practice affected those who have experienced adoption?

 

Significance and Innovation

The innovatory significance of this project lies in its focus on the experience of participants in the adoption process – experience which has been nowhere assessed in its relationship to policy. In its simultaneous embrace of  private experience and public practice (and the discourses that mediate these) it will speak to the significance of adoption within private lives, to its function as the object of policy makers, and to the impact of  policy on practice. We cannot predict the outcomes of this analysis.

Despite its ubiquity in Western nations during the twentieth century, adoption has been slow to attract the attention of historians. American scholar E. Wayne Carp offers three reasons for this comparative silence: the focus of child welfare professionals on contemporary research; the secrecy provisions surrounding much of the evidence; and the reluctance of social workers to revisit what is now commonly seen as a ‘failed’ policy (Carp Family Matters 1998). Many of the existing histories have been produced as part of the campaign to overturn past policies: eg Else (A Question of Adoption 1991) on New Zealand; Swain and Swain (1992) on Australia; Howe, Sawbridge and Hinings (Half a Million Women 1992) on the United Kingdom.

In recent years, several North American historians have begun to study the subject. E. Wayne Carp’s pioneering work on the rise and decline of secrecy in adoption in the United States appeared in 1998, followed by several edited collections exploring different aspects of the American adoption experience (Askeland Children and Youth 2006; Carp Adoption in America 2002). These studies produce national narratives  drawn by their archival base into telling a story about social workers and agencies rather than families and children. The recent Canadian history, Veronica Strong-Boag’s Finding Families, Finding Ourselves: English Canada Encounters Adoption from the 19th Century to the 1990s (2006) incorporates the voices of family members in one chapter, but does not attempt to integrate their pain in the causal narrative.

The practice of adoption in Australia runs in parallel with that of other settler societies, but our national anxieties about race and population suggest that our story will be significantly different (Cuthbert, Quartly and Murphy, 2009). Very little has yet been told. Historians and other scholars have studied the Aboriginal experience of families lost and sometimes regained (Edwards and Read 1989; Haebich 2000; Mellor and Haebich 2002). Others have told the stories of white single mothers forced to ‘put out’ their babies for adoption (Swain and Howe 1995), of white mothers adopting Aboriginal babies (Cuthbert 2000; 2001) and of adoption agencies (Howe and Swain 1993). Participants have written powerful accounts of their experience of adoption (Dessaix 1994; Chick 1994). Yet knowledge about the history of adoption in Australia remains partial and local. Marshall and McDonald’s The Many-Sided Triangle (2001) gives a useful overview of the legislative and policy changes that have affected adoption practice, but provides only minimal insight into the diversity of experience. Our comprehensive study will inform policy makers by asking questions which go beyond the sociological concern for the ‘efficiency’ or otherwise of adoption, to consider the outcomes of adoption from the point of view of those whose lives have been changed by it – including for the first time the voices of fathers, birth and adopting. Evidence at a long series of parliamentary enquiries (Bringing Them Home, 1997Releasing the Past, 2000Forgotten Australians, 2001Lost Innocents, 2001Overseas Adoption in Australia, 2005) has revealed the pain still suffered by individuals – pain which can only be addressed by some public recognition of its power, its impact and its causes.

These enquiries have less often reflected the voices of those whose experience has been joyful, that is, those for whom the adoption experience has been positive and rewarding. The project aims to capture the full range of experiences, and to analyse the historical factors shaping these different trajectories.  Thus it will fill a significant gap in the nation’s self-understanding by explaining the changing place, meaning and significance of adoption in our society and, in particular, the significance of adoption for Australian families and for Australian conceptions of the family. In so doing it addresses a key aspect of the government’s Designated National Research Priorities: ‘Understanding and strengthening key elements of Australia’s social and economic fabric to help families and individuals live healthy, productive, and fulfilling lives’: the key element here being the family.

The project’s academic outcomes will be significant for many fields of history: the history of the Australian family; the story of legal identity and citizenship in Australia; the history of whiteness, in terms of the adoption both of Aboriginal children and of babies from Asia and Africa; and the story of changing understandings of what constitutes personal identity. The study also has theoretical implications, challenging current assumptions within feminism, where recent battles over essentialist/constructionist/postcolonial issues have pushed concepts such as family, motherhood, and social identity to the sidelines. And historical changes in the practice of adoption necessarily query the objectivity of legal, welfare, and medical ‘knowledge’.

The methodology of the project is innovative in that it brings together three categories of source materials and methods of analysis normally isolated within historiography: practice, discourse, and experience. We include archival research relating directly to the practice of adoption: the records of legislatures, government, charitable agencies, and support groups of every persuasion; textual sources open to analytical readings: novels, magazines, newspapers, and the published products of agencies, activists, and legislatures; and – less obvious but still open to analysis as discourse – research papers in sociology, social work, and psychology. And we are centrally concerned with the evidence of self-reflective experience located in autobiographies, participants’ published accounts, existing oral histories bearing on adoption and life histories contributed for the project by adopted children, birth parents, adoptive parents, other family members, social workers and other professionals. In what is perhaps the most innovative aspect of the project, oral history subjects will be invited to become active participants, historians in their own right, contributing to a website where they can publish their stories and comment upon others.

The website will serve a number of inter-related functions. People involved in the adoption process will be invited, via the site, to sign up as participants to the project, to place their own histories on the site, or to edit their interviews as contributed by professional oral historians before these are placed on public access. Use of this site will also allow the immediate publication of research outcomes such as statistical data, bibliographic listings of archival and textual material, and conference papers, and we will encourage online conversations of a scholarly kind. 

 

Approach and Methodology

 The national story will be told in a substantial monograph, a history of Australian adoption addressing as its central question the changing meanings of adoption in twentieth century Australia, and the varying impact of these changes on the lives of families and individuals involved with adoption.

The central historical account will be informed by the collection of life stories, conversations and debates on the project website. These stories will be vexed and conflictual, raising serious ethical issues in terms of their use as historical sources. The design of the site will address these issues by inviting the story-tellers to become full participants in the project, the subjects of history rather than objects.

Protocols determining levels of access will give the story-tellers control of their material, so they decide at what point edited stories can be opened to public access and academic use. We hope to include all those involved in adoption: adopted children, birth parents, adoptive parents, other family members, social workers and other professionals. Participants will be encouraged to introduce family members to the site, as commentators and contributors, and themselves to comment on other contributions.

 

Publications Related to the History of Adoption Project

These articles and book chapters were produced by researchers associated with the History of Adoption project. They are grouped by subject matter.

General

Cuthbert, D. 2010. ‘Beyond apologies: Historical reflections on policy and practice relating to the out-of-home care of children in contemporary Australia’. Children Australia, 35 (2): 12–17.

Cuthbert, D., Murphy K., Quartly, M. 2009. ‘Adoption and feminism: Towards framing a feminist response to contemporary developments in adoption’. Australian Feminist Studies 24, issue 62: 395–419.

Cuthbert, D., Quartly, M. (eds). 2010. Adoption, Fostering, Permanent Care and Beyond: Re-Thinking Policy and Practice in Out-of-home Care for Children in Australia. Special issue of Children Australia, 35.2.

Cuthbert, D., Quartly, M. 2012. ‘“Forced adoption” in the Australian story of national regret and apology’. Australian Journal of Politics and History 58: 82–96.

Cuthbert, D., Quartly, M. 2013. ‘Forced Child Removal and the Politics of National Apologies in Australia’. American Indian Quarterly 37.

Howe, R, Swain, S. 1993. The Challenge of the City: The Centenary History of Wesley Central Mission. Melbourne: Hyland House.

Murphy, K., Quartly, M., Cuthbert, D. 2009. ‘“In the Best Interests of the Child”: Mapping the (Re) Emergence of Pro-Adoption Politics in Contemporary Australia’. Australian Journal of Politics and History, 55.2: 201–218.

Musgrove N., Swain, S. 2010The “Best Interests of the Child” in Historical Perspective’. Children Australia 35.2: 35–37.

Quartly, M. 2010.The “Rights of the Child” in global perspective’. Adoption, Fostering, ChildrenAustralia 35.2: 38–42.

Quartly, M. 2012. ‘“[W]e find families for children, not children for families”: An incident in the long and unhappy history of relations between social workers and adoptive parents.” Social Policy and Society 11.3: 415–427.

Quartly, M., Cuthbert, D., Murphy, K., 2009.Political representations of adoption in Australia, 1996–2007.” Adoption and Culture 2: 141–158.

Quartly, M., Cuthbert, D., Swain, S. 2012. ‘A report on the findings of the Monash History of Adoption project.” Australian Journal of Adoption 6 (12): n. p. (Papers of the 10th Australian Adoption Conference). At http://www.nla.gov.au/openpublish/index.php/aja/article/view/2523/2974

Quartly, M., Swain, S. 2012. “The market in children: analysing the language of adoption in Australia.” History Australia, 9 (2): 69–89.

Spark, C., Cuthbert, D. 2009. Other People’s Children: Adoption in Australia. Melbourne: Australian Scholarly Publishing.

Swain, P., Swain, S. 1992. To Search for Self: The Experience of Access to Adoption Information. Sydney: Federation Press.

Swain, S. 2010. ‘Birth and death in a new land’. History of the Family 15 (1): 25–33.

Swain, S. 2011. ‘Adoption, secrecy and the spectre of the true mother in twentieth-century Australia.’ Australian Feminist Studies 26:68: 193–205.

Swain, S. 2011. “Failing families: Echoes of nineteenth century child rescue discourse in contemporary debates around child protection.” In Marie-Louise Kulke and Christian Gutlebon (eds), Neo-Victorian Families: Gender, Sexual and Cultural Politics, 71−91. Netherlands: Rodopi.

Swain, S. 2010. ‘Australia’. In Brigitte Bechtold and Donna Cooper Graves (eds). An Encyclopedia of Infanticide, 24−27. Lewiston: The Edwin Mellen Press.

Swain, S. 2012. ‘Market forces: Defining the adoptable child, 1860–1940’. Social Policy and Society 11.3: 399–414.

Swain, S. 2012. ‘Snapshots from the long history of adoption in Australia’. Australian Journal of Adoption 6 (12): n. pag. (Papers of the 10th Australian Adoption Conference.) At: http://www.nla.gov.au/openpublish/index.php/aja/article/view/2550/2996

Swain, S., Howe, R. 1995. Single Mothers and Their Children: Disposal, Punishment and Survival in Australia. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.

Swain, S., Hillel, M. 2010. Child, nation, race and empire: Child rescue discourse, England, Canada and Australia, 1850–1915. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Studies of Indigenous Adoption

Cuthbert, D. 2001. ‘Holding the baby: Questions arising from research into the experiences of non-Aboriginal adoptive and foster mothers of Aboriginal children’. Social Semiotics 11 (2): 139–154.

Cuthbert, D. 2001. ‘Stolen children, invisible mothers and unspeakable stories: The experiences of non-Aboriginal adoptive and foster mothers of Aboriginal children’. Social Semiotics 11 (2): 139–154.

Cuthbert, D. 2000. ‘Mothering the ‘other’: Feminism, colonialism and the experiences of non-adoptive mothers of Aboriginal children’. Balayi : Culture, Law and Colonialism 1 (1): 31–49.

Swain, S. 2013. “‘Homes are sought for these children’. Locating Adoption Within the Australian Stolen Generations Narrative.” American Indian Quarterly 37.

Studies of Inter-Country Adoption

Cuthbert, D. (ed). 2012. The Vietnam Inheritance. Special issue of Journal of Australian Studies 36 (4). 

Cuthbert, D. (ed). 2012. Waiting for a Better World: Critical and Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Intercountry Adoption, Themed section of Social Policy and Society 11 (3).

Cuthbert, D., Swain, S. Quartly, M. 2010. ‘Interdisciplinary perspectives on intercountry adoption in Australia’ (Workshop summary). At http://www.assa.edu.au/programs/workshop/workshop.php?id=79

Cuthbert, D., Spark, C., Murphy K. 2010. ‘“That was then, but this is now”. Historical perspectives on intercountry and domestic child adoption in Australian public policy’. Journal of Historical Sociology 23 (3): 427–452.

Forkert, J. 2012.Refugees, orphans and a basket of cats: the politics of Operation Babylift.” In Denise Cuthbert (ed), The Vietnam Inheritance. Special issue of Journal of Australian Studies 36 (4): 427–444.

Fronek, P., Cuthbert D. 2012. ‘History repeating . . . Disaster-related intercountry adoption and the psychosocial care of children’. Social Policy and Society 11(3): 429–442.

Fronek, P., Cuthbert, D. 2012. ‘The future of inter-country adoption: A paradigm shift for this century.” International Journal of Social Welfare 21(2): 215–224.

Murphy, K., Pinto, S., Cuthbert, D. 2010. ‘“These infants are future Australians”: Making the nation through intercountry adoption.” Journal of Australian Studies 34(2): 141–161.

Taft, M., Dreyfus, K., Quartly M., Cuthbert., D. Spring 2013 ‘“I knew who I was not, but not who I was”. Public storytelling in the lives of Australian adoptees’. Oral History (UK) 41(1): 73–83.

Willing, I., Fronek P., Cuthbert. D. 2012. Social Policy and Society ‘Review of sociological literature on intercountry adoption’ 11(3): 465–479.