Performative Displays of Sovereignty

diaoyuBeginning in the 1970s, the East and South China Seas have become the epicenter of a new age of territorial disputes with ferocious struggles emerging over the Takeshima/Tokdo islands, claimed by Japan and Korea, the Spratly islands, claimed by Brunei, China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam and the Diaoyu/Senkaku islands, claimed by China, Japan and Taiwan.

In recent years, nationalist groups and activists have have emerged as the most combative actors, dispatching numerous expeditions to the disputed Diaoyu/Senkaku islands.  They have used a familiar claiming repertoire that includes planting flags, placing border markers, setting up commemorative plaques, establishing temples or shrines, swimming in nearby waters or onto shore, and staging ceremonies.   All of these come straight from the early modern playbook for claiming.  The result is a renewed focus on performative displays of sovereignty.

lightOne point of particular interest for this project focuses on the erection of lighthouses.   In August 1978 , members of a Japanese nationalist group called Nihon Seinensha or Japan Youth Association landed on the island to erect a beacon or lighthouse.  Why did Seinensha activists decide to erect a lighthouse.   Surprisingly, although there are dozens of papers and books on this issue, no-one has tried to answer this question as to what exactly they were thinking or the particular logic that motivated them. According to  Eto Toyohisa (衛藤豊久 ), former president of the Seinensha, who was the father of the lighthouse approach, there were two primary motivations for the lighthouse.

light-2First, they believed that erecting a beacon provided a highly public, that is performative, way to demonstrate Japanese sovereignty.  Second, they believed that it would be effective in terms of marking Japan’s sovereignty within international law. A very similar logic can be found in early modern sources.

 

Claiming Possession: Asia, Europe and Empire

taiwanThis project reassesses the nature of claims to possession across the early modern world by shifting the focus to Asia. It examines how Europeans actually claimed possession over people, lands and resources in the shadow of powerful Asian states while also charting the emergence of local counterclaims and processes of legal resistance. Claiming was never only a European enterprise. The proposed research draws key Asian polities into the analysis by considering historical claiming practices across borderland areas. Asia was and remains an active site for claiming and this project examines how the practices developed in the early modern period exert unexpected influence over current sovereignty disputes in the South and East China Seas.

Aims

koxingaThis project has four aims that cross between the early modern period and the present. First, it will examine how Europeans actually claimed possession across early modern Asia. Second, it will explore processes of legal resistance and chart the emergence of local counterclaims. Third, it will pull Asian polities into the analysis by considering claiming practices across key borderland areas in East and Southeast Asia. Fourth, it will trace the ways in which the model for claiming developed by Europeans in the early modern period continues to exert influence over current sovereignty disputes in Asian waters while delving into a set of foundational legal cases that hinge on seventeenth century practices.

 

 

 

 

The Commodities that Changed the World

Clulow revised background imageATS 2109 The Commodities that changed the world was a unit that ran for the first time in 2016.  Students prepared a portfolio focused on one commodity and consisting of an annotated bibliography, a commodity chain analysis, an object podcast and finally a poster.

Salt as Power – Gabriela Balas-Gauthier

 

 

 

Empire primary sources

1: The Islamic Empires

A visit to the wife of Suleiman the Magnificent: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1550sultanavisit.asp

Abu’l-Fazl ‘Allami, Akbarnama , ed. H. Beveridge, (Mission Press, Asiatic Society, 1897)
http://persian.packhum.org/persian/main?url=pf%3Ffile%3D00701020%26ct%3D0

C. T. Forster and F. H. B. Daniel, eds., The Life and Letters of Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq, vol. I (London: Kegan Paul, 1881), pp, 86-88, 153-155, 219-222, 287-290, 293. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1555busbecq.asp

Sidi Ali Reis, ‘Mirat ul Memalik’, in Charles F. Horne, ed., The Sacred Books and Early Literature of the East, (New York: Parke, Austin, & Lipscomb, 1917), Vol. VI: Medieval Arabia, pp. 329-395.
Located at: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/16CSidi1.asp

The following website has a good selection of Turkish poetry from the thirteenth century to the present: http://www.cs.rpi.edu/~sibel/poetry/roots.html

2: China and Russia

Hirth, F. , China and the Roman Orient: Researches into their Ancient and Mediaeval Relations as Represented in Old Chinese Records (Shanghai & Hong Kong, 1885), pp. 65-67. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/eastasia/1372mingmanf.asp

Polo, Marco and Rustichello of Pisa, The Travels of Marco Polo, ed. Henry Yule, (London: John Murray,1903), vol. 1 and 2.
http://archive.org/details/thetravelsofmarc10636gut

Robert Michell and Nevill Forbes, (Translators) The Chronicle of Novgorod, 1016-1417. Camden Third Series. Vol. 25. London: The Camden Society, 1914. Passim et seriatim. reprinted in Warren Walsh, Readings in Russian History, (Syracuse NY: Syracuse University Press, 1948) http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/novgorod1.asp

Robinson, James Harvey , ed., Readings in European History, 2 Vols. (Boston: Ginn and Co., 1904-1906), Vol. II: From the opening of the Protestant Revolt to the Present Day, pp. 303-312. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/petergreat.asp

Nestor, The Russian Primary Chronicle, Laurentian Text, ed. Samuel Hazzard Cross (Cambridge Massachusetts: Medieval Academy of America, 1930), http://www.mgh-bibliothek.de/dokumente/a/a011458.pdf

Wallis, E.A. . The Monk of Kublai Khan, Emperor of  China; or The History of the Life and Travels of Rabban Sawma, Envoy and  Plenipotentiary of the Mongol Khans to the Kings of Europe and Markos who as Yahbh-Allaha III Became Patriarch of the Nestorian Church in Asia. London:  The Religious Track Society, 1928. http://www.nestorian.org/rabban_bar_sawma.html 

A selection of documents to do with Russia, from the University of Durham:

Filofei – Moscow as the Third Rome: http://www.dur.ac.uk/a.k.harrington/3rdrome.html

The Lay of Igor’s Raid : http://www.dur.ac.uk/a.k.harrington/igorraid.html     

3: Spain and Portugal

Cortes, Hernan , Letters from Mexico , trans. Anthony Pagden (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986). http://web.archive.org/web/20000304002237/http://www.humanities.ccny.cuny.edu/history/reader/cortez.htm

 see also:
http://archive.org/details/fifthletterhern00gayagoog

da Gama, Vasco , A journal of the first voyage of Vasco da Gama, 1497-1499, ed. E. G. Ravenstein, (London: Hakluyt Society, 1898). Found at: http://archive.org/details/worksissuedbyha00unkngoog

Lea, Henry C. : The Inquisition in the Spanish Dependencies, 1908: http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/mod/17c-lea-limainquis.asp

Modern history sourcebook, Aztec Accounts of the conquest of Mexico, found at: http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/mod/aztecs1.asp

4:

Charter of the Dutch East Indian Company: http://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/westind.asp

Speech on the reform of the representation of the commons in parliament, E. J. Payne, 1774, http://www.econlib.org/library/LFBooks/Burke/brkSWv4c2.html

Clive, Robert , Speech in Commons on India, 1772, D. B. Horn and Mary Ransome, eds., English Historical Documents, 17141783 (London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1957), pp. 809-811. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1772clive-india.asp

Riebeeck, Jan van. Journal of Jan van Riebeeck. Volume II, III, 1656-1662. Edited by H. B. Thom and translated by J. Smuts. Cape Town: A.A. Balkema, 1954. http://archive.org/details/riebeecksjourna00archgoog

Roe, Thomas , The Embassy of Sir Thomas Roe to India, 1615-19, ed. W. Foster (London: Hakluyt Society 1899): http://archive.org/details/embassysirthoma00fostgoog

Thatcher, Oliver J. , ed., The Library of Original Sources, (Milwaukee: University Research Extension Co., 1907), Vol. VII: The Age of Revolution, pp. 59-64.http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1757plassey.asp

 

Technology, science, religion, ideology (Movement of ideas) lectures

1: Religion

The Spread of Christianity by Missionaries and East-West Cross Cultural Exchange

The Jesuit approach to preparing missionaries for the field

Emphasis on philosophical , mathematical and scientific training allowed them to combine missionary work with roles as astronomers, pharmacists, surveyors and map makers, artists and architects – these activities allowed them to travel and to reach new audiences by first establishing their scientific expertise before attempting conversion

Syncretist accommodation versus orthodoxy in missionary strategies to conversion

Jesuits such as the Frenchman Joachim Bouvet endeavoured to reconcile biblical texts with Chinese history to facilitate conversion to Christianity

Jesuits as agents of cross cultural exchange

Missionaries were required to report in detail to their superiors in Europe. Their letters describing their travels and encounters with eastern customs were collated and became an important source of information about China and Asia for a Western audience, keen to learn about these remote places.

Jesuits translated Aristotelian concepts into Chinese and passed on the fruits of their sophisticated education to those they wished to convert.

2: Revolutionary Ideas

American Ideology:

The Enlightenment

This was an intellectual movement which began in the 1600s and involved many of the era’s greatest minds; some like Isaac Newton would become key figures in modern history. Continuing on with intellectual trends begun during the Renaissance, Enlightenment thinkers challenged old views, values and traditions that had previously been accepted as fact. They believed that for something to be truly valid and immutable as fact, it must be logical, rationally argued and examined, and not just based on superstition or dogma. Enlightenment philosophers were particularly keen political thinkers who questioned the divine right of kings: they were of the opinion that mankind, being essentially of good character and intelligence, could govern itself given the right framework and organisations

Natural Rights (Locke)

The English philosopher John Locke argued that man is born with ‘natural rights’ that no government could take away: these rights are life, liberty (freedom) and property (the right to acquire it and keep it safe from theft or seizure). Many progressive philosophers, both in America and elsewhere, thought the British to be infringing on these rights. It was the role of any government to protect the natural rights of its citizens, rather than to restrict or impinge upon them.

Separation of Powers (Montesquieu)

Political philosophers like Montesquieu maintained that the monarchy, legislature, and judiciary must be kept in a state of balance to prevent tyranny of one over the others. This idea was reflected in Montesquieu’s The Spirit of the Law and heavily influenced the United States Constitution of 1789.

French Ideology: Liberty, Equality, Fraternity

Liberty, equality and fraternity became the catchcry of the French Revolution: liberty from government oppression, social and economic equality, and fraternity (brotherhood) between all people. This could be compared to the United States Declaration of Independence: ‘We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.’

Locke: Life, liberty and property were the fundamental rights of all men, according to writers of the Enlightenment like John Locke. This was reflected in documents like the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen.

Hobbes: His notion of freedom was used by revolutionary leaders to inspire revolt. According to Philip Pettit, Hobbes argued ‘it is only the exercise of a power of interference that reduces people’s freedom, not its (unexercised) existence – not even its existence in an arbitrary, unchecked form. Equally, he persuaded them that the exercise of a power of interference always reduces freedom in the same way, whether it occurs in a republican democracy, purportedly on a ‘non-arbitrary’ basis, or under a dictatorial, arbitrary regime.’

Jean Jacques Rousseau: Rousseau wrote that “man is born free; and everywhere he is in chains”: this underpinned his belief in the social contract between people and their government, and the concept of popular sovereignty. The French revolutionaries adopted this rhetoric to some extent.

Implementing ideology:

The primary issue within the American revolution was whether to use popular sovereignty and actual representation, or virtual representation and unlimited sovereignty. The other debates inherent within the revolutionary movement all largely issued forth from this one primary concern.

Sovereignty

The central intellectual problem that confronted the leaders of the American cause was how to qualify, undermine or reinterpret the doctrine of sovereignty. The British maintained parliamentary sovereignty was unlimited and undivided whereas the Americans considered sovereignty to be much more localised and autonomous. Therefore, there were two aspects to the American question of sovereignty; did sovereignty imply a single, undivided final power? And what is the location of that power (i.e who, or what bodies held these powers?) The Americans argued that sovereignty did not imply a single, undivided power (it should be divided among the executive, legislature, and judiciary and between federal and state bodies) and that the power was located in the people. This was reflected in both the American Constitution and the Declaration of Independence.

On a local governance level, sovereignty played out in the issue of representation. The 1760s catch cry of ‘No Taxation without Representation’ was a response to Parliament’s attempts to tax the colonies without their consent. The colonialists demanded ‘actual representation’: electing a Member of Parliament to represent their interests. The British instead advocated ‘virtual representation’ wherein all members of Parliament supposedly represented the best interests of all the people, regardless of whom they voted for. By 1775 this had become a conservative position as the people were rapidly coming to the conclusion that there could be no division of political responsibility between Britain and the colonies, and that ultimately the only place for sovereignty was with the people.

American Influence on France

  • Popular sovereignty was the most significant new political idea: it spelled the end of absolutist monarchies, placing power into assemblies that supposedly represented the will of the people. Power came from below, not from above. The writings of the Abbe Sieyes, such as What is the Third Estate? brought ideas about representation and political sovereignty sharply into focus in 1789 and can be compared to Thomas Paine in the American context.
  • Constitutionalism also became popular, in part due to its success in America. The National Assembly insisted on a constitution upon its breakaway from the Estates-General. This would create a written framework for better and fairer government.

 

Technology, science, religion, ideology (Movement of ideas) primary sources

1: Global Religion

Matteo Ricci, The True Meaning of the Lord of Heaven [1603], trans. D. Lancashire & P. Hu Kuo-chen (St. Louis: Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1985). [every other page is the English translation]

Xavier, St. Francis: Letter from Japan, to the Society of Jesus at Goa, 1551
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1551xavier3.html

Xavier, St. Francis: Letter from India, to the Society of Jesus at Rome, 1543
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1543xavier1.html

‘To his companions living in Rome’ [from Cochin, January 15, 1544], in The Letters and Instructions of Francis Xavier, trans. M. Joseph Costelloe (St. Louis: Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1992), letter 20, 63-74.

The travels of several learned missioners of the Society of Jesus, into divers parts of the archipelago, India, China, and America (1714) to be found at http://archive.org/details/travelsseverall00jesugoog

Thomas Power, trans. Instructive and curious epistles, from Catholic clergymen of the Society of Jesus : in China, India, Persia, the Levant, and either America; being selections of the most interesting of the Lettres with an appendix, slightly illustrating the present situation of the countries described (1839) to be found at http://archive.org/details/instructiveandcu00unknuoft

Of the Jesuit Missionaries in New France 1610-1791, THE ORIGINAL FRENCH, LATIN, AND ITALIAN TEXTS, WITH ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS AND NOTES; ILLUSTRATED BY PORTRAITS, MAPS, AND FACSIMILES, ed. by REUBEN GOLD THWAITES, Secretary of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Vol. LXIV

Ottawas, lower Canada, Iroquois, illinois: 1689-1695 to be found at
http://archive.org/details/cu31924092207483

Bartholeme de Las Casas, The Spanish Colony (1583), in Early Modern Catholicism: An Anthology of Primary Sources, ed. Robert S. Miola (Oxford: Oxford University Press, UK, 2007). [electronic resource

A. Ruiz de Montoya, The Spiritual Conquest: Accomplished by the Religious of the Society of Jesus in the Provinces of Paraguay, Parana, Uruguay and Tape (St.Louis: Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1993), 11-24 (intro), 27-31, 35-54.

John Patrick Donnelly, S.J., ed., Jesuit Writings of the Early Modern Period, 1540 – 1640. (Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 2006).

Jesuit Letters from China, 1583-84, edited by M. Howard Rienstra (Minnesota: Minnesota Archive Editions, 1986)

2: Global Ideology

The Enlightenment, Natural Rights (Locke), Separation of Powers (Montesquieu)

Montesquieu: The Spirit of Laws: Book 11
http://www.constitution.org/cm/sol_11.htm

Second Treatise Of Government By John Locke 1690
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/7370/7370-h/7370-h.htm

 Sect 87 “. Man being born, as has been proved, with a title to perfect freedom, and an uncontrouled enjoyment of all the rights and privileges of the law of nature, equally with any other man, or number of men in the world, hath by nature a power, not only to preserve his property, that is, his life, liberty and estate, against the injuries and attempts of other men; but to judge of, and punish the breaches of that law in others, as he is persuaded the offence deserves, even with death itself, in crimes where the heinousness of the fact, in his opinion, requires it”

Popular Sovereignty and Actual Representation

Thomas Paine’s Common Sense
http://www.ushistory.org/paine/commonsense/sense1.htm

The Declaration of Independence
http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/declaration_transcript.html

The US Constitution of 1789
http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution_transcript.html

Hobbes’ Leviathan

See Philip Pettit: http://www.princeton.edu/~ppettit/papers/LibertyandLeviathan_PPE_2005.pdf for analysis, and;

http://oll.libertyfund.org/?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.php%3Ftitle=869 for the primary source.

Rousseau Social Contract
http://ebooks.gutenberg.us/WorldeBookLibrary.com/socon.htm

Abbé Sieyès “What is the third estate”?
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/sieyes.asp

Declaration of Man and Citizen 1789
http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/rightsof.asp

Jefferson Letters (during his time in Paris)
http://etext.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/JefLett.html

Declarations of Independence

Vietnam
http://coombs.anu.edu.au/~vern/van_kien/declar.html

Mexico
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Declaration_of_Independence_of_the_Mexican_Empire#Text_of_the_Declaration

Haiti
http://today.duke.edu/showcase/haitideclaration/declarationstext.html

Liberia
http://onliberia.org/con_declaration.htm

Czechoslovak Nation
http://archive.org/details/declarationofind00czec

Israel
http://stateofisrael.com/declaration/

 

 

Technology, science, religion, ideology (Movement of ideas) secondary sources

 2: Global Religion

Alden, Dauril, The Making of an Enterprise: The Society of Jesus in Portugal, its Empire and Beyond, 1540-1750 (Stanford: California, Stanford University Press, 1996).

Blackburn, Carole, Harvest of Souls: the Jesuit Missions and Colonialism in North America 1632-1650 (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2000), chps 2 & 5.

Boxer, Charles R., The Christian Century in Japan 1549-1650 (Berkeley : University of California Press, 1951).

Brockey, Liam M., Journey to the East: the Jesuit Mission to China 1579-1724 (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2007), 287-327 (Chap. 8 ‘The business of conversion’).

Clossey, Luke, ‘The Early Modern Jesuit Missions as a Global Movement’ (November 16, 2005), UC World History Workshop, Working Papers from the World History Workshop Conference Series 3. – available online at: http://repositories.cdlib.org/ucwhw/wp/3

Clossey, Luke, Salvation and Globalisation in the Early Jesuit Missions (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008).

Cummins, J. S., Jesuit and Friar in the Spanish Expansion to the East (London: Variorum Reprints, 1986).

Cummins, J. S., ed. Christianity and Missions, 1450–1800 (Aldershot: Ashgate Variorum, 1997).

Daughton, James P., An Empire Divided: Religion, Republicanism, and the Making of French Colonialism, 1880-1914 (Oxford University Press, 2006)

Dewald, Jonathan ed., Articles on ‘missions’ in Europe 1450-1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World, (New York.: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2004).

Dunch, Ryan, ‘Beyond Cultural Imperialism: Cultural Theory, Christian Missions, and Global Modernity’, History and Theory, Vol. 41, No. 3 (Oct., 2002), pp. 301-325

Frykenberg, Robert E., Christianity in India. From beginnings to the Present (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), 116-41 (ch. 5)

Gernet, Jacques, China and the Christian Impact (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Paris: Editions de la Maison des sciences de l’homme, 1982, 1985), 47-57.

Gillman, Ian and Klimket, Hans-Joachim, eds., Christians in Asia Before 1500 (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1999).

Greer, Allan, ed. The Jesuit Relations. Natives and Missionaries in Seventeenth-Century North America, (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2000)

Gribben, Crawford, Evangelical Millennialism in the Trans-Atlantic World, 1500-2000 (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2010). [electronic resource]

Holtrop, Peter N. and McLeod, Hugh, Missions and Missionaries (Woodbridge, Suffolk: Published for the Ecclesiastical History Society by the Boydell Press, 2000)

Lach, Donald F., Asia in the Making of Europe (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965), vol. 1, book 2, Chapter 9, ‘China’, especially 730-794, and ‘Epilogue: A Composite Picture’, 822-35.

Laven, Mary,  Mission to China: Matteo Ricci and the Jesuit encounter with the East, (London, & Faber, 2011).

Lindenfeld, David, ‘Indigenous Encounters with Christian Missionaries in China and West Africa, 1800-1920” A Comparative Study’, Journal of World History, 16.3 2005, 327-69.

Mills, Kenneth and Grafton, Anthony, eds., Conversio: Old Worlds and New (Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester Press, 2003)

Monet, Jacques, ‘The Jesuits in New France’, in The Cambridge Companion to the Jesuits, ed. Thomas Worcester (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2008), 186-198. [Electronic resource]

Moran, J. F., The Japanese and the Jesuits: Alessandro Valignano in Sixteenth-Century Japan (London, Routledge, 1993).

O’Malley, John W. [et al.], eds., The Jesuits II: Cultures, Sciences, and the Arts, 1540-1773 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2006).

Parker, Charles H., ‘Converting souls across cultural borders: Dutch Calvinism and early modern missionary enterprises’, Journal of Global History, 8.1 (2013), 50-71

Po-Chia Hsia, R., ‘The Catholic Missions in Asia’, in The World of Catholic Renewal, 1540–1770, 2nd Ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 178–93 (Chapter 12).

Ross, Andrew C., ‘Alessandro Valignano: The Jesuits and Culture in the East’, in The Jesuits: Cultures, Sciences, and the Arts, 1540-1773, eds. John W. O’Malley et. al. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999), 336-351.

Ross, Andrew C., ‘Christian Encounters with Other World Religions’, in The Cambridge History of Christianity Vol. 7: Enlightenment, Reawakening and Revolution 1660–1815, eds.

Sandaert, Nicolas, ‘Jesuits in China’, in The Cambridge Companion to the Jesuits, ed.

Spence, Jonathan D., The Memory Palace of Matteo Ricci (London : Faber, 1985).

Tackett, Timothy and Brown, Stewart J., (Cambridge Histories Online: Cambridge University Press, 2006). [Electronic Resource] http://0-histories.cambridge.org.library.newcastle.edu.au/uid=5845/extract?result_number=2&search_scope=global&book_id=chol9780521811620_CHOL9780521811620&query=andrew+ross&id=chol9780521816052_CHOL9780521816052A026&advanced=0

Antoni Ucerler, M. J., ‘Alessandro Valignano: Man, Missionary and Writer’, Renaissance studies, 17 (3) (2003), 337-366.

Worcester, Thomas, ed., The Cambridge Companion to the Jesuits (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008). [electronic resource]

Zupanov, Ines G., Missionary Tropics: the Catholic Frontier in India (16th-17th centuries) (Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 2005), especially chap. 1 ‘The Sacred Body.

2: Global Ideology

American:

Bailyn, Bernard. Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. New York: Harvard, 1982, viii-xvi, 110-112, 322-379.

Kolm, Serge-Christophe. “Free and Equal in Rights: Philosophies of the Declaration of 1789 .” The Journal of Political Philosophy 1, no. 3 (1993): 158-183.

Hamowy, Ronald “The Declaration of Independence” in Greene, Jack, (ed.) A Companion to the American Revolution (Blackwell Companions to American History). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2003, 264-266.

See also

Bailyn, Bernard. To Begin the World Anew: The Genius and Ambiguities of the American Founders. New York: Knopf, 2003.

Banning, Lance. The Jeffersonian Persuasion: Evolution of a Party Ideology. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1978.

Boorstin, Daniel J. The Genius of American Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953.

Countryman, Edward. The American Revolution. New York: Hill and Wang, 2003.

Gibson, Alan R. Understanding the Founding: The Crucial Questions. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2010

Ellis, Joseph. Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation. New York: Vintage, 2000.

Kalyvas, Andreas, and Ira Katznelson. Liberal Beginnings: Making a Republic for the Moderns. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

McGiffert, Michael, ed. Forum: The Creation of the American Republic: A Symposium of Views and Reviews, 1776–1787. William and Mary Quarterly 3d ser. 44.3 (July 1987): 549–640.

Morgan, Edmund S. The Birth of the Republic, 1763–89. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

Rakove, Jack N. Revolutionaries: A New History of the Invention of America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2010

Wood, Gordon. Representation In The American Revolution. Charlottesville, University of Virginia Press, 1969.

Wood, Gordon. The Radicalism of the American Revolution.  New York: Alfred A. Knopf ,1992.

French

Baker, Keith Michael. Inventing the French Revolution: Essays on French Political Culture in the Eighteenth Century. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990, 12-28.

Lydia Chartier, Cochrane, Roger (tr.) The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution. London: Duke University Press, 1991.

Hunt, Lynn. Politics, Culture and Class in the French Revolution. Berkley & Los Angeles: U Of California Press, 1984.

See also:

Cobban, Alfred. The Social Interpretation of The French Revolution. New York, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1964.

Dale, Van Kley (ed.). The French Idea of Freedom: The Old Regime and the Declaration of Rights of 1789. Stanford : Stanford University Press, 1997.

Echeverria, Durand, ‘The Pre-revolutionary Influence of Rousseau’s Contrat Social’, Journal of the History of Ideas xxxiii (1972), 543-60.

Furet, François. “Interpreting the French Revolution.” In The French Revolution: The Essential Readings.. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2001, 31-52.

Lefebvre, George. The Coming of the French Revolution . New York: Random House, 1947.

Rudé George. “The Outbreak of the French Revolution.” In The Social Origins of the French Revolution. Lexington: Heath, 1975, 3-16.

Smith, Jay. “Social Categories, the Language of Patriotism, and the Origins of the French Revolution: The Debate over noblesse commerçante.” The Journal of Modern History 72 (2000): 339-374.

Stanlis, Peter “Burke, Rousseau and the French Revolution” in Blakemore, Steven. Burke and the French Revolution: Bicentennial Essays. Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1992, 97-119.

Tackett, Timothy. Becoming a Revolutionary: The Deputies of the French National Assembly and the Emergence of a Revolutionary Culture (1789 – 1790). University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1996.

Impacts

 Armitage, David. The Declaration of Independence: A Global History. Boston: Harvard University Press, 2007.

Billias, George. American Constitutionalism Heard Round the World. New York: New York University Press, 2009.

Klaits, Joseph and Michael Haltzel. Global Ramifications of the French Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

 

 

Empire images

Lecture 1:

Iran under the Safavid and Qājār Dynasties (10th-13th/ 16th-19th Centuries). Source: Hugh Kennedy, Historical Atlas of Islam. Brill Online, 2013. See:  http://referenceworks.brillonline.com.ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/entries/historical-atlas-of-islam/iran-under-the-safavid-and-qajar-dynasties-10th-13th-16th-19th-centuries-HAI_38_39
Iran under the Safavid and Qājār Dynasties (10th-13th/ 16th-19th Centuries). Source: Hugh Kennedy, Historical Atlas of Islam. Brill Online, 2013. See: http://referenceworks.brillonline.com.ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/entries/historical-atlas-of-islam/iran-under-the-safavid-and-qajar-dynasties-10th-13th-16th-19th-centuries-HAI_38_39

 

 

Limits of the Muslim World. Source: Professor Giorgio Riello, Warwick University, lecture slides.
Limits of the Muslim World. Source: Professor Giorgio Riello, Warwick University, lecture slides.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mughal Empire, 1605. Source: Professor Giorgio Riello, Warwick University, lecture slides.
Mughal Empire, 1605. Source: Professor Giorgio Riello, Warwick University, lecture slides.

 

Ottoman and Safavid Empires. Source: Professor Giorgio Riello, Warwick University, lecture slides.
Ottoman and Safavid Empires. Source: Professor Giorgio Riello, Warwick University, lecture slides.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mughal Empire at the End of the 17th Century. Source: Professor Giorgio Riello, Warwick University, lecture slides.
Mughal Empire at the End of the 17th Century. Source: Professor Giorgio Riello, Warwick University, lecture slides.

 

Osman I, the founder of the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman miniature painting, Located at Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi, Istanbul. Source: Professor Giorgio Riello, Warwick University, lecture slides.
Osman I, the founder of the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman miniature painting, Located at Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi, Istanbul. Source: Professor Giorgio Riello, Warwick University, lecture slides.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lecture 4:

The Palmer Family, Francesco Renaldi, 1786. In Beth Tobin, Picturing Imperial Power: colonial subjects in eighteenth-century England painting, (Durham: Duke University Press, 1999)
The Palmer Family, Francesco Renaldi, 1786. In Beth Tobin, Picturing Imperial Power: colonial subjects in eighteenth-century England painting, (Durham: Duke University Press, 1999)

 

Batavian senior merchant Pieter Cnoll, his Eurasian wife and daughters and domestic slaves. Jacob Coleman, 1665, Rijksmuseum. In Kees Zandliviet, The Dutch Encounter with Asia, 1600-1950 (Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, 2002).
Batavian senior merchant Pieter Cnoll, his Eurasian wife and daughters and domestic slaves. Jacob Coleman, 1665, Rijksmuseum. In Kees Zandliviet, The Dutch Encounter with Asia, 1600-1950 (Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, 2002).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Attributed to Ghulam Murtaza Khan (active 1809–30) Akbar II in darbar with the British Resident Charles Metcalfe Delhi ca. 1811–15 Opaque watercolor, gold, and silver on paper Image: H. 24 5⁄16 × W. 18 9⁄16 in. (61.7 × 47.1 cm) Page: H. 25 3⁄8 × W. 19 3⁄4 in. (64.5 × 50.1 cm) Cincinnati Art Museum, The William T. and Louise Taft Semple Collection, 1962.458
Attributed to Ghulam Murtaza Khan (active 1809–30) Akbar II in darbar with the British Resident Charles Metcalfe Delhi ca. 1811–15 Opaque watercolor, gold, and silver on paper Image: H. 24 5⁄16 × W. 18 9⁄16 in. (61.7 × 47.1 cm) Page: H. 25 3⁄8 × W. 19 3⁄4 in. (64.5 × 50.1 cm) Cincinnati Art Museum, The William T. and Louise Taft Semple Collection, 1962.458

 

By a master artist working for William Fraser The village of Jeewah Moocuddum near Rania: William Fraser’s circle of village folk, his white stallion, and progeny. From the Fraser Album Rania, Haryana ca. 1810–20 H. 12 3⁄8 × W. 16 5⁄8 in. (31.4 × 42.2 cm) Opaque watercolor on paper. Private collection
By a master artist working for William Fraser The village of Jeewah Moocuddum near Rania: William Fraser’s circle of village folk, his white stallion, and progeny. From the Fraser Album Rania, Haryana ca. 1810–20 H. 12 3⁄8 × W. 16 5⁄8 in. (31.4 × 42.2 cm) Opaque watercolor on paper. Private collection

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

hâtelain, Atlas Historique. Amsterdam, 1708-1720. 7 Vol.
Batavia, Châtelain, Atlas Historique. Amsterdam, 1708-1720. 7 Vol.

 

Melacca, hâtelain, Atlas Historique. Amsterdam, 1708-1720. 7 Vol.
Melacca, Châtelain, Atlas Historique. Amsterdam, 1708-1720. 7 Vol.

 

Empire Secondary Sources

1: Islamic Empires

Burbank, Jane and Cooper, Frederick, Empires in World History: Power and the Politics of Difference, Princeton, 2010.

Casale, Giancarlo, The Ottoman Age of Exploration, Oxford, 2010.

Dale, Stephen, The Muslim Empires of the Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals, Cambridge, 2010.

Turchin, Peter ‘A Theory of Formation of Large Empires’, Journal of Global History, vol. 4, no. 2, 2009, pp. 191 – 217.

Zilfi, Madeleine, Women in the Ottoman Empire: Middle Eastern Women in the Early Modern Era (Leiden: Brill, 1997).

2: China and Russia

Burbank, Jane and Cooper, Frederick, Empires in World History: Power and the Politics of Difference, Princeton, 2010.

Goldstone, Jack, “East and West in the Seventeenth Century: Political Crises in Stuart England, Ottoman Turkey and Ming China,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 30.1 (1988): 103-142.

Perdue, Peter C., China Marches West: the Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2005).

3: Spain and Portugal

Bethencourt, Francisco and Curto, Diogo Ramada (eds), Portuguese Oceanic Expansion, 1400 – 1800, Cambridge, 2006.

Godhino, Vitorino, ‘The Portuguese Empire 1565 – 1665’, Journal of European Economic History, vol. 30, no. 1, 2001, pp. 49 – 101.

White, Richard, The middle ground: Indians, empires, and republics in the Great Lakes region, 1650-1815 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).

4: The EIC and VOC

Farrington, Anthony, Trading Places: The East India Company and Asia 1600-1834 (London: British Library, 2002).

Furber, Holden, Rival empires of trade, Europe and the World in the Age of Expansion (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota press, 1976).

Mancke, Elizabeth, “Early Modern Expansion and the Politicization of Oceanic Space.” The Geographical Review 89.2 (April 1999): 225-236

Olschki, Leonardo, Marco Polo’s Asia; an introduction to his ‘description of the world called “il Milione”’ (Berkeley-Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1960): 127-146

Scammell, Geoffrey, The World Encompassed: the first European maritime empires c.800-1650 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981)

Tracy, James B., The Rise of Merchant Empires: Long-Distance Trade in the Early Modern World 1350-1730 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).

Zandlivet, Kees, The Dutch Encounter With Asia, 1600-1950, (Rijksmuseum Amsterdam: Wanders Publishers Zwolle, 2002.

 

What is Global History – Images

Maps

(Map and caption printed in Northrop, Douglas, ‘Introduction: The Challenge of World History’, in A Companion to World History, Northrop, Douglas (ed), Chichester, 2012, p. 2).  ‘On a typical world map, such as the classic Mercator projection, Greenland appears misleadingly enormous – yet few observers pause to note the inaccuracies. Mapmakers rarely question other basic assumption, such as drawing north at the top. But if the Earth resembles ball spinning through space, are ‘up’ and ‘down’ so self-evident? Better maps can provide fresh perspective, and make viewers aware of unspoken assumptions. The Hobo-Dyer projection shows accurately the relative size of different land areas, while preserving north/south and east/west lines of bearing. It also gives the Southern Hemisphere visual prominence, imagining a globe that has been re-centred Down Under. Map and caption printed in Northrop, Douglas, ‘Introduction: The Challenge of World History’, in A Companion to World History, Northrop, Douglas (ed), Chichester, 2012, p. 2.
(Map and caption printed in Northrop, Douglas, ‘Introduction: The Challenge of World History’, in A Companion to World History, Northrop, Douglas (ed), Chichester, 2012, p. 2).
‘On a typical world map, such as the classic Mercator projection, Greenland appears misleadingly enormous – yet few observers pause to note the inaccuracies. Mapmakers rarely question other basic assumption, such as drawing north at the top. But if the Earth resembles ball spinning through space, are ‘up’ and ‘down’ so self-evident? Better maps can provide fresh perspective, and make viewers aware of unspoken assumptions. The Hobo-Dyer projection shows accurately the relative size of different land areas, while preserving north/south and east/west lines of bearing. It also gives the Southern Hemisphere visual prominence, imagining a globe that has been re-centred Down Under.

 

Map 2: ‘Standard Wold Regions circa 1975’, printed in Martin Lewis and Kären E. Wigen, The Myth of Continents: A Critique of Metageography, p. 168.
Map 2: ‘Standard Wold Regions circa 1975’, printed in Martin Lewis and Kären E. Wigen, The Myth of Continents: A Critique of Metageography, p. 168.

 

Map 3: ‘A Heuristic Regionalization Scheme’, printed in Martin Lewis and Kären E. Wigen, The Myth of Continents: A Critique of Metageography, p. 187.
Map 3: ‘A Heuristic Regionalization Scheme’, printed in Martin Lewis and Kären E. Wigen, The Myth of Continents: A Critique of Metageography, p. 187.

 

Map 4: The Atlantic Ocean. (Printed in Robert Ritchie, Captain Kidd and the War Against the Pirates, p. 28).
Map 4: The Atlantic Ocean. (Printed in Robert Ritchie, Captain Kidd and the War Against the Pirates, p. 28).

 

What is Global History – Sources

Sources:

Anon., (World History Association) ‘What is World History?’ (Source: http://www.thewha.org/world_history.php)

 Blaut, James M. ‘Review of The Myth of Continents: A Critique of Metageography, by Martin Lewis and Kären Wigen’, in Journal of World History, Vol. 10, No. 1, Spring 1999, pp. 205 – 210.

 Braudel, Fernand, The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Phillip II, London, 1975, first published 1949.

Cartier, Carolyn, ‘Cosmopolitics and the Maritime World City’, Geographical Review, vol., 89, no. 2, ‘Special Edition: Oceans Connect’, April 1999, pp. 278 – 289.

Carr, E.H., What is History?, Chippenham, 2001, first published 1961.

Chaudhuri, K.N., Trade and Civilization in the Indian Ocean: An Economic History from the Rise of Islam to 1750, Cambridge, 1985.

Harley, J.B. ‘New England Cartography and the Native Americans,’ in The New Nature of Maps: Essays in the History of Cartography, Paul Laxton, ed. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003), pp.  169- 96.

Iggers, Georg and Wang, Q. Edward A Global History of Modern Historiography, Harlow, 2008.

Iggers, Georg, Historiography in the Twentieth Century: From Scientific Objectivity to the Post-Modern Challenge, Hanover, N.H., 1997).

Lewis, Martin and Wigen, Kären E. The Myth of Continents: A Critique of Metageography, Berkeley, 1997.

Lewis, Martin, ‘Dividing the Ocean Sea,’ Geographical Review 89, 2, “Oceans Connect” (Apr. 1999), pp. 188-214.

Lindsey, Lisa, ‘The Appeal of Transnational History’, in Perspectives on History, December 2012.

Mancke, Elizabeth, ‘Early Modern Expansion and the Politicization of Oceanic Space’, in Geographical Review, vol., 89, no. 2, ‘Special Edition: Oceans Connect’, April 1999, pp. 225-236

McKeown, Adam, ‘Chapter Five: What Are the Units of World History?’ in A Companion to World History, Northrop, Douglas (ed), Chichester, 2012, pp. 80 – 93.

Northrop, Douglas, ‘Introduction: The Challenge of World History’, in A Companion to World History, Northrop, Douglas (ed), Chichester, 2012, pp. 1 – 11.

Rediker, Marcus, Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea: Merchant Seamen, Pirates and the Anglo-American Maritime World, 1700 – 1750, Cambridge, 1987.

Ritchie, Robert, Captain Kidd and the War Against the Pirates, Cambridge, Mass., 1986.

Sachsenmair, Dominic, ‘Chapter Two: Why and How I Became a World Historian’, in A Companion to World History, Northrop, Douglas (ed), Chichester, 2012, pp. 33 – 42.

Yonemoto, Marcia, ‘Maps and Metaphors of the “Small Eastern Sea” in Tokugawa Japan, 1603 – 1868’, Geographical Review, vol., 89, no. 2, ‘Special Edition: Oceans Connect’, April 1999, pp. 169 – 187.

 

 

 

What is Global History – Lectures

1: Historical Traditions and the Emergence of Global History

 Introduction

Most global historians agree that ‘global history’ is history that examines ‘phenomena that transcend single states, regions and cultures, such as cultural contact and exchange and movements that have had a global or at least a transregional impact’ (The World History Association, http://www.thewha.org/world_history.php). Global history’s defining theme might be called mobility; global historians are interested in the movement of ideas (for example, religious ideas or ideas about legitimate structures of government), the movement of things (for example, gun-power, spices, cotton or codfish), the movement of plants and diseases, and the movement of people.

Understanding the discipline of global history requires an understanding of the evolution of historical writing, and how and why the way that historians have written about the past has changed over time. This lecture will also discuss what global historians mean by ‘comparisons’ and ‘connections’ in history, and why these are particularly important to the discipline of global history. The terms ‘global history’, ‘world history’ and ‘transnational history’ will be used interchangeably, since, as historian Dominic Sachsenmaier argues, the meanings  of these terms overlap.

The discipline of global history does not just encompass histories of ‘globalisation’, although it can include histories that address this. Nor does it only encompass ‘big’ histories that address long periods of time or sweeping geographic areas (although, as historian Douglas Northrop explains, many global historians do stretch traditional periodic and geographic boundaries, and the first ‘world histories’ of the 20th century, before global history came into its own as an academic discipline, were very much ‘big’ histories. Historian William McNeill, for example, whose book The Rise of the West (1963) explained that he preferred to take a ‘birds-eye view’ of historical events).

The way in which historians choose to write about the past – the subjects they focus on and the methodology they use – is informed by the politics and prevailing concerns of the present. E.H. Carr argued that ‘the historian’s interpretation of the past’ and his or her ‘selection of the significant and the relevant, evolves with the progressive emergence of new goals’. (What is History, 1961). The discipline of global history has emerged in the context of an increasingly mobile and connected world, in which the Cold War notion of self-contained and separate ‘East’ and ‘West’ is no longer convincing, and nation-states are increasingly irrelevant.

The first global histories

Although global history as an academic discipline has only existed since the 1980s, it is important to note that histories crossing national borders were written long before this (and also long before the writing of history became professionalised in universities in the 19th century). For example, consider Herodotus’ The Histories, Ibn Khaldun’s The Muqaddimah and Voltaire’s Essay on Manners.

19th century histories and the nation-state

Since the professionalization of history in the 19th century, the nation-state has been a dominant ‘container’ through which historians have organised their research. After the Enlightenment and the French Revolution, the proper purpose of history was thought to be the tracing of the development of the nation state. In the 19th century especially, many historians saw their task as telling the story of the nation-state, for the benefit of the nation-state – for example, to provide a basis for a shared sense of national pride among a nation’s citizens.  In the 20th century, World Wars I and II encouraged this nationalist bent in historiography. Global historians strongly reject the privileging of the nation-state in the writing of history, and they draw critical attention to aspects of contemporary historical writing and the structure of history as an academic discipline that stems from these 19th century nationalist origins.

2: The problem of time – Chronologies, periodization and big history

Introduction

Many global historians (though not all) focus upon change over long periods of time. So it is important to understand how and why these historians choose to work with long chronologies, and to write what is sometimes called ‘big history’. Global historians who write big history argue that that it is not necessarily better or more true to focus on small units of time, but rather that (as historian Douglas Northrop summarizes) ‘different entities, issues and patterns emerge at each level of perspective’.

The length of time that historians can fruitfully study is still a matter of debate within the discipline of global history – although the most famous world historian of the 20th century, William McNeil choose to write big history, and many contemporary global historians do so too, other global historians study specific local events occurring over shorter periods (decades or centuries).

Slicing up time

Another well-known world historian of the 20th century, Fernand Braudel, rejected the chronological frameworks that governed the writing of most academic history. He also rejected the notion of narrative, arguing that historians should closely examine conditions in specific time periods. Braudel argued that historians should not so much be concerned with courses of events, or politics or diplomacy, but with the larger, slower moving structures and processes that shaped the history of the world (what he called the longue durée, or long duration).  He argued that long enduring structures were more interesting for historians than the lives of individuals, that historians should look for ‘recurring patterns’ over long periods of time, and that they should collaborate with social scientists and geographers in order to understand these deeper historical processes. (See The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Phillip II, 1949).

Historian Adam McKeown also argues that it can be useful to study historical change over long periods. He suggests that when considering appropriate periodization for global history, historians could consider topics such as ‘the ebb and flow of nomadic power, the possibility of common cycles of state expansion and contraction, the relevance of the Black Death in producing new patterns of global interaction, the existence of a global seventeenth-century crisis, or the timing of the great divergence between Europe and the world’.

3: The problem of place – Geographical divisions, continents and area  studies

Introduction

Global historians reject the geographic units that many historians use to frame their historical narratives; they argue that nation-states (and, in fact, any static political or cultural units, including ‘civilizations’, ‘continents’ and ‘areas’) are not useful geographic units for historical study. Global historians argue that we should focus on ‘zones of interaction’ – geographical spaces in which people, ideas and materials have moved and encountered one another. These spaces include oceans, deserts, highland regions and borderlands.  This lecture will discuss the problem of geographical divisions in historical writing, and introduce the Cold War notion of ‘area studies’. Global historians object to ‘area studies’ as a framework for organising historical study, and argue that historians must conceptualise the world in other ways.

The Cold War and area studies

Global historians criticise ‘the area studies’ model, and so it is useful to understand what this is and how it came about.  The post-1945 power struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union influenced the way history was written during this time. Historian Georg Iggers argues that the Cold War was a conflict ‘between two social systems each seeking to define itself ideologically’, and in the United States, at least, this encouraged historians to think in terms of ‘areas’ such as ‘the West’, and led to the writing of histories that traced it’s the progress and modernisation of the West. After the end of the Cold War, it became clear to many historians that dividing the world up into ‘areas’ according to Cold War ideology was arbitrary and misleading; in other words, not a desirable way to organise historical research.

The rapid globalization of the world after 1989 prompted scholars to formulate new ways of writing history that reflected this. In this climate, many scholars felt that understanding history through the prism of rigid nation-state categories did not make sense. Some historians looked to Braudel and his focus on the ocean, arguing that if it no longer made sense see the world through the framework of the nation-state, historians should focus instead on the world’s oceans and the way in which oceans have facilitated human interactions over time. (For example, see Martin Lewis and Karen E. Wigen’s 1997 book The Myth of Continents: A Critique of Metageography,  1997.

Carving up space: zones of interaction

Rather than focusing on ‘areas’, ‘civilizations’ or nation-states, global historians study ‘zones of interaction’. (McKeown) The best developed global history field is oceanic history – the earliest of these oceanic histories is Braudel’s history of the Mediterranean (1949). The field also includes K.N. Chaudhuri’s study of trade and civilization in the Indian Ocean (Trade and Civilization in the Indian Ocean: An Economic History from the Rise of Islam to 1750, 1985). More recently, global historians have carried out research on topics such as port cities (Carolyn Cartier), the way in which oceans have been depicted in geographical writings and maps (Marcia Yonemoto), the way in which dominance of maritime space was important to early modern European expansion and imperialism (Elizabeth Mancke), and seamen and pirates (Marcus Rediker and Robert Ritchie).

Global history is not restricted to oceans and ports – other zones of interaction include borderlands and deserts. As Adam McKeown suggests, ‘the highlands that cross Southeast Asia, China and India’ and ‘the zone of Turkic-speaking peoples’ are also spaces of encounter and exchange that could be studied by global historians.

4: The place of Europe

Introduction

Global historians challenge the dominance of Europe and European history which, they argue, characterises many works of academic history and pervades the way history is taught in schools and universities. This lecture discusses the way in which postmodern and postcolonial theory informs the approach of global historians. It also considers the ‘rise of the West’ narrative in world history, and the ways in which more recent global histories have challenged this narrative and offered alternatives to it.    

Postmodernism and post-colonialism

Postmodernism and post-colonialism inform the way in which global historians think about the carving up of space (see lecture 3) and the place of Europe in the world. In the late 1960s, French philosopher Michel Foucault (following Nietzsche) argued that knowledge is an instrument of power. Foucault contended that power produces knowledge. Influenced by Foucault, Edward Said’s argued in Orientalism that European knowledge about ‘the East’, and ‘the Other’ had nothing intrinsically to do with ‘the East’ itself, but rather was produced out of the condition of European colonial domination. He contended that orientalist ‘knowledge’ was not objective truth but rather a set of ideas which served to perpetuate this domination. So when global historians argue that the way in which European and American historians understand the world and divide it into categories (‘continents’, ‘areas’, ‘nation-states’) is related to political power, they are drawing on the power-knowledge argument made by these postmodern thinkers.

The political and cultural changes of the 1960s and 1970s also contributed to global historians’ rejection of nationalism and the ‘East’ vs ‘West’ area studies model. For example, German global historian Dominic Sachsenmair explains that his parents and many of his teachers ‘belonged to the so-called 68ers’, which was a group ‘named after the student protests during that year … they distanced themselves sharply from their parents, whom they blamed for the atrocities of the Nazi past … the dominant climate of opinion in my particular surroundings made it highly unlikely that one would accept and assert the nation as the main frame of one’s identities and intellectual interests’.

‘The Rise of the West’ narrative in global history

The proper place of Europe and European history in global history narratives is a matter of debate. The classic world history of the 20th century was William McNeil’s Rise of the West (1963); since then, global historians have challenged ‘rise of the West’ narratives, and questioned the significance of Europe and Europeans in world history that these imply. Global historians have done this by writing comparative and connective histories; for example, they have studied the cultural and economic exchanges between Europeans and non-Europeans during the early modern period. But, as Adam McKeown has argued, a coherent alternative to the ‘rise of the West’ narrative has not yet emerged.

 

 

 

 

 

Empire lectures

1:  Land Empires – The Islamic Empires

Introduction

In these lectures we will be considering the questions: ‘what is an empire?’ In their book, Empires in World History, historians Jane Burbank and Frederick Cooper argue that empires are ‘large political units, expansionist or with a memory of power extended over space, polities that maintain distinction and hierarchy as they incorporate new people’. In the four lectures in this module we will consider different kinds of empire: in this first lecture we will consider the Ottoman, plSavafid and Mughal empires. These Muslim empires differed from, for example, the land-based empire of China or the maritime empire of Portugal. The Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal Empires shared important characteristics, including their manner of warfare and control of territories, political organisation, material culture and religious tolerance.  In this series of lectures we will also consider what kinds of connections were forged between these empires, through political connections and embassies, through trade, merchants and migration, and through material culture.

During these lectures, we will ask if the Ottoman and Mughal empires can be called ‘global empires’, the importance of merchants in the development of these empires, and whether of not the history of the Mughal and Ottoman empires supports common assumptions about the ‘rise and fall’ of empires.

The Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire lasted over 600 years, from 1300 until the First World War. This empire is important to the study of Global History because of the particularly diverse peoples and traditions that it incorporated – Byzantine, Turkic, Mongal, Arab and Persian  – and also for its longevity. Some key dates are important to note: the reign of Osman began in 1299, and after his death the empire suffered a series of military defeats. In 1413, the Empire was reconstructed under Mehmet I, and in 1453, Mehmet II took over Constantinople and established Istanbul. At this time, the Ottomans became the leaders of the Sunni Muslims, who held that the Caliphs were the proper interpreters of the faith. The empire continued to expand its territory in all directions after this date. In 1922, it collapsed after decades of sectarianism and violence, religious and ethnic intolerance and economic decline. The Turkish republic was established in 1923.

The Safavid Empire

The Safavid Empire (1501 – 1736) was a Shiite Muslim dynasty in what is now Iran, uniting all Persian lands. It was originally founded by a Turcic people. In 1501, Shah Ismai’il I founded the empire and proclaimed Shiism as its religion. (Shia Muslims hold that the descendants of the prophet and certain members of the prophet’s family are the rightful inheritors of the teachings and leaders of the faith).  The Safavid Empire competed with the (Sunni) Ottomans for the fertile plains of Iraq and also for the city of Baghdad. The wealth of the Safavid Empire was derived from its trade links with China and Europe during the sixteenth century, but this declined through the 17th century.

The Mughal Empire

In 1526, Babur, a Muslim from Afghanistan, defeated the Hindu Rajput kings and established the Mughal Empire, with a base in Delhi. The Mughal Empire was located in central and northern India, stretching into what is now Pakistan and Afghanistan. The Mughal Empire included over 100 million subjects, 85% of whom were not Muslim, but rather, Hindi, Jain, Sikh and Christian. The Mughal rulers encouraged debates between thinkers of the great religious traditions, and Sikhism emerged in the Punjab as a blend of Hindu and Muslim traditions during this period of tolerance. The Mughal Empire began to decline in 1720, although it did not officially come to an end until the 19th century.

2: Land Empires – China and Russia

In lecture two, we shall consider the second of the land based empires: Russia and China. Despite sharing many commonalities in terms of peoples, religions, and geography with the Ottoman empire, they are still very different. Indeed, in many ways they are also dissimilar between themselves: one being a very new empire and the other with an incredibly long heritage. At the same time though, there is no other that provides such a fruitful comparison to the way both structured and maintained themselves. Cooper and Burbank argue that rather than being solely premised on trade and shared religious values, both are similar because of their specific bureaucratic and structural nature that covered a startling array and variety of peoples and lands. Both of them were also primarily concerned with expanding inland towards the same areas of central Eurasia and in terms of size, by the eighteenth century, there was nowhere else that is comparable nor as global.

Russia:

Rus

Russia gets its name from the warrior princes who founded a state in Kiev in the ninth century, when the Rus’ boatmen, unlike the Vikings, went east. They pioneered trading routes from the Baltic ports, down the Volga and to the Black Sea, into Byzantium and back up the Dnieper River. These children of Riuri (Riurikids) eventually due to political pressure had to choose a state religion; choosing between Islam, Judaism and Orthodox Christianity. Reputedly they didn’t choose Islam because of the ban on alcohol. The Orthodox church provided an infrastructure and framework for the empire, but this was not enough for sustainable growth.

Kipchak Khanate (Golden Horde)

The Riurikids were defeated by the Mongols in 1240, after being weakened by a series of consecutive attacks on their trade networks. From 1243 until the late fourteenth century, the Riurikids were clients of the Khan. This enabled them to consolidate power again, but this time with the backing of the Mongols. The prince of each area needed to be confirmed in Sarai (north of Astrakhan) by the Kipchak Khanate and issued iarlyk, which was a patent of authority. The Orthodox church received the same authority and protection and was forced to learn how to manage diverse and dispersed populations. From the mid-fifteenth century, the Kipchak Khanate split into four – Kazan, Astrakhan, Crimea and the last bits of the Kipchaks. Into this gap moved the Muscovites (aided incidentally by Timur), or the family Daniilovichi, who were perhaps the most powerful and politically well placed of all the princes. They pursued a number policies to expand their empire and maintain control:

Land grants – much as the Mongols had done, they conditionally divided land out to those who were willing to swear them loyalty and service. This consolidated their supreme authority.

Marriage – organised the different clans in complex hierarchies of marriage and reliance. This promoted dependency and interest on the part of even the most disparate groups.

Church – rewrote their genealogy so that rather than being a series of patching intermarriages with Mongol families, they were directly tied to Augustus Caesar via the Byzantine emperors. By turning the Mongol ascent into the ‘Tartar yoke’, they then had an uninterrupted lineage into a Roman past and a tradition of grand empire, guided by the church. The title Csar, derived from Caesar, was taken up by Ivan IV in 1547.

Romanovs

 The land grants were important to keeping the state together, but to supply them Russia needed to keep on expanding. This nearly came to an end with Ivan IV (the Terrible) who by attempting to consolidate his own personal authority outside of the church and the boyars (princes), made a series of mistakes that left the country rudderless until the boyars elected Mikhail Romanov in 1613. The Romanov dynasty lasted until 1917. Perhaps the most famous of all the Romanovs was Peter the Great. He continued in the same tradition as previous rulers, innovating and introducing another layer of change into the governing structure to maintain expansion and authority. This time he introduced a number of Western elements into the Mongol, Byzantine, Muscovite shapes of Empire, and moulded Russia into a global threat that it never was before.

  • Reformed the boyar duma into a senate
  • Stripped some of the religious significance from his position
  • Insisted on educated servitors
  • Constrained some of the church’s authority through administrative (tax) reform and the introduction of a synod.
  • He drew architects, actors and academics from Europe to Russia

China:

China in comparison was a system founded in the norms and institutions of a Chinese past. Our understanding of the history of the Chinese empire is fundamentally formed by Western perceptions and needs for rhetorical straw men in their own understandings of Empire. The main theme in all of these, be they about the familial, despotic, or stagnant Orient is unity and homogeneity.  Burbank and Cooper argue that this homogeneity is just one facet of a much more complex empire, that has been moderated and mediated to incorporate difference, which gave it an eminent flexibility just as much as Russian governance.

Yuan Dynasty (1300-1368)

During the late thirteenth century, Khubilai captured the Song region along with northern China. The Mongols removed the capital to Beijing and founded the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368). The Yuan maintained some of the Chinese structures, but reprioritised the hierarchy of those within them – Mongol warriors at the top were followed by Muslims from west and central Asia. Then, much as they did elsewhere, they subdivided the realm into provinces for easier governance.

Ming dynasty (1368-1644)

Despite coming to agreements to hold their borders stable, the Yuan’s in-fighting meant that they were unable to see off peasant revolts and activists, with the result that Hongwu founded the ‘Ming’ dynasty in 1368. The Ming cut off contact, except for tributary relations, with the Yuan and re established the examination system. The initial move back to Nanjing was not permanent as the Yongle emperor returned to Beijing and established the Forbidden City. Despite many voyages, they were more interested in expanding West and South, as well as defending the North against the various nomadic tribes and Muscovite incursions. Often it seems as if much of this negotiation and trade was one long period of ‘reclaiming’ lost lands, despite never having held them. Yet despite emphasising their Chinese origins and the mythology of a united, homogenous state they still relied on the Yuan provinces and a number of other bureaucratic novelties that were instigated by them. The Ming were an extremely powerful, wealthy and creative dynasty.

Qing dynasty (1644-1912)

The Ming began to make errors, in particular with the edges and borders of their empire. With climactic change (mini ice age), continuous raids and the emperor Wanli withdrawing from direct governance, the centralised government was without a centre. The various Jurchen tribes of the northeast (from Manchuria) were no longer responding to false rivalry set up with the Mongols. Nurhaci, the leader of one of the Jurchen tribes, managed to corner the best of tributary authority: monopolizing trading rights, drawing more Jurchen and Mongol tribes into his orbit. In 1616 he founded his own empire, ‘Jin.’ By 1619 he had defeated a major part of the Ming army and taken numerous Chinese cities. His governance drew on not only his own tribal background, but various other Mongol groups on the steppes. He divided his army into ‘banners’, where each family rode under a banner, to remove established clan loyalties and link them to him. His son, Hong Taiji took this one step further, renaming all Jurchens as Manchus, conquering the one of the last of the Mongol khans and renamed the Jin as Qing. In 1644, a gap opened in the Ming governance and under the regency of Dorgon, the Qing rode into Beijing and did not leave. By the eighteenth century the Qing had doubled the territory held by the Ming.

The Qing pursued dual policies of separation and integration or the ‘Manchu apartheid.’ Many of these faded over the 267 years of dynasty, the tactic pursued fed into the idea of the unchanging unity of Chinese governance.

  • They celebrated their difference, abolishing the regions run by the Han war lords. Bannermen were sent into the different regions, kept separate but mobile at the same time. So their presence was felt, but they didn’t become (or at least not instantly) too stagnant.
  • Setting up the Han and the Manchu as enemies concentrated power on the emperor to keep the balance. The examination system was there, but equally military prowess could get you to the top of the tree.
  • Keeping their own language (edicts were published in Manchu, Chinese, Mongolian, Tibetan and Uighur).
  • Women not expected to foot bind (tried to make it universal but too much opposition), clothes and hair were enforced for men. Manchu women also retained a certain amount of independence under Manchu law.
  • Marriage was to prevent Manchu’s being out bred, but also to consolidate dynastic practice. Kangxi abolished primogeniture.
  • Used Confucianism and other Chinese methods to draw them together into a paternalistic unity under the emperor.
  • Created the emperor as a representative and protector of all the varied races, or the ‘qualities of the universal Khan.’

Meeting in the Middle

During the middle of the fifteenth century, both the Ming and the Muscovites began to run into each other. Unlike Spain and Portugal, both sides were in many ways familiar to each other, in origin, goals and tactics. Both sides dealt with this by negotiation and a series of treaties, because in the end it was better to help each other maintain their own borders, than it was to go into an extended series of conflicts with another enormous power like themselves. Treaty of Nerchinsk in 1689, reaffirmed by the Kiakhta treaty of 1727. Accommodation to difference, rather than eradication. Flexible ideologies that allowed plurality as well as a mythology that would give a unitary glue. Managed to over write their Mongol and disrupted heritage with much smoother narratives, that are still used in nationalistic political rhetoric today.

3: Sea Empires – Spain and Portugal

Introduction

The empires of Spain and Portugal were maritime empires. These empires differ in important ways from the Muslim empires and the ‘land empires’ of Russia and China. In this lecture, we will consider if the Spanish and Portuguese empires can be called ‘global empires’, and what part the state played in the way Spanish and Portuguese long distance trade

The Spanish Empire

Historians Jane Burbank and Frederick Cooper argue that ‘Spanish imperial expansion was dependent on individual adventurers who raised capital and military forces to plant the flag of the king’. The Spanish sea empire depended on mobility, and strategic use of resources – as Burbank and Cooper put it, ‘they moved in where they could and avoided areas where the barriers were high’. Rivalry and conflict with the Ottoman powers made it difficult for the Habsburg rulers to expand their land-based empire – but their sponsorship of maritime explorers (the most famous being Christopher Columbus) led to construction of a powerful and lucrative Spanish Empire, based primary on silver and sugar produced in the Americas. It was important to the Spanish Crown to maintain control over imperial products – the import and export of goods between Europe and Americas was restricted to Spanish Ports and tightly regulated.

Unlike the Ottoman Empire, the Spanish Empire was intolerant of religious diversity. Muslims and Jews in Spanish territory were forced to convert to Catholicism or be expelled – many of these people settled in Ottoman territory.

The Portuguese Empire

Like the Spanish empire, the Portuguese empire was a maritime empire, which relied on the exploitation of resources of lands often distances away from the imperial centre, and the trading of those resources. This trade-based empire also relied on the monopoly and control of key maritime trade routes. The Portuguese empire stretched over Asia, Africa and America. Although it was not a ‘settler’ empire in the manner of the British in Australia and New Zealand in the 19th century the Portuguese did moved to the territories in their possession, mixed with local populations, and actively tried to convert local populations to Catholicism and to take up Portuguese cultural habits. (For example, see the discussion relating to the Portuguese in Goa, in the lecture series on ‘Ecology’ in global history).

Period

Number of Portuguese migrating to the colonies

1415 – 1500

50,000

1500 – 1580

180,000

1580 – 1640

360,000

1640 – 1700

150,000

1700 – 1760

600,000

Source: Professor Giorgio Riello, Warwick University, lecture slides.

The Portuguese in the Americas

As a case study, consider the Portuguese empire in the Americas, particularly Brazil. The Portuguese colonisation of Brazil began in 1500, when Alvaro Calbral landed on the coast of that territory. In some ways, the colonisation of Brazil was peculiar in the Portuguese empire because it involved a plantation economy – the Portuguese used American land and African slave labour in order to produce sugar. The colonisers settled at coastal ports, including Pernambuco (now known as Recife) Bahia and Rio and as well as the sugar, the Portuguese also exploited natural resource, such as dyes.

4: Sea Empires – the Dutch and the British

In this lecture we will be exploring the last sort of empire, which differs from all the others: founded as mercantile companies with the privileges of states and combining capital accumulation with armed, coercive commerce. These two very different types of empires were for large parts of their existence, literally between and on, the intersections of your more regular land and seafaring empires. We will take as our case studies the Dutch and the English companies, because they were by far the most successful .

Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC)

The Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC) was founded in 1581. When the elites of the Dutch cities declared independence from Spain and formed the United Provinces under a monarch, decentralised power diffused between the familial and provincial clusters. Emerging from these smaller groups, merchants in each province pooled together to afford sea voyages, eventually forming the VOC. The company was a joint stock company representing stockholders from different cities. Managed by 17 Heeren, the VOC grew its own empire by starting to integrate its merchants into pre existing trade networks on the spice routes, in part taking over from the Portuguese (in particular cities like Melaka), but also negotiating markets (China) that the Portuguese had not made much of.

Although the Dutch never made much inroad into the land kingdoms, such as Burma and Siam, they nevertheless offered local South East Asian rulers the means to trade and connect with each other, establishing bases (entrepots) in different port cities. In 1617 they established a base in Batavia (Jakarta), which by 1670 had gone from 8,000 to 130,000. There was a lot of intermarriage in the entrepots between the Dutch, locals and other immigrants. All the while, the VOC gained monopolies and changed the markets, for example forcing those who traded with them to grow more pepper as it was a favoured export. They also hired locals to labour for the company, using violence to enforce this.

By the eighteenth century the VOC was beginning to own land, not just the ports and sea routes, allowing the state like elements of the company to come to the fore. This also meant that they could grow own crops without relying on the local kingdoms and farmers. Unfortunately by the eighteenth century, the VOC was struggling to maintain their monopolies as well as the military might needed to hold their trade and land operations, in particular under pressure from the British. Enforcing monopolies across Bengal, Ceylon, Melaka, China and Taiwan was expensive and it didn’t help that the wars in Europe were also putting pressure politically on the Netherlands. The VOC, by 1720, was in decline with shareholders beginning to back out.

English East Indian Company (EIC)

Burbank and Cooper opens their discussion of the English East Indian Company (EIC) with a discussion of how the British Empire is contextualised in history. They argue that it tends to be seen as a monolithic whole: one uniform power.  In fact, this is not true as it did not start out that way, instead some of the most important parts of the British Empire grew out of the same sort of mercantile system that the VOC did. For example, until 1858, India did not belong to the crown at all. Unlike the Dutch and the VOC, the British differed in the fact that along with the EIC, they also had successful plantations and settlements in the New World, much like the other seafaring empires of the Spanish and Portuguese. Primarily, however, the Eastern part of the Empire was organised and run by the EIC.

Founded in 1599, it began trading with the Ottoman Empire, whereupon Elizabeth I granted it a charter in 1601. Initially there were only 125 shareholders. Unlike the VOC, the EIC’s original focus was on establishing trade in India rather than South East Asia. Similarly to the VOC, the EIC found that it was impossible to hold land, even for trade, perhaps even more so as the surrounding empires (Mughal, Safavid) were so strong. Unable to integrate into the traditional, land based trade routes they moved to control the seas, displacing the Portuguese over time. The Mughal rulers did not particularly value the oceans with the wealth of empire they had in the land. In the end they gained a monopoly of trade going out of India, as well as policing access to the Indian Ocean. Unfortunately, the EIC had trouble gaining control of the import market, as India had no real need for any of their products. This eventually characterised the  relationship between the two, as producer and buyer.

The EIC was organised into four presidencies: Bombay, Bengal and Madras, along with China in the Canton. It was very compact with only 24 directors and fewer levels of administration. Unlike all other sea faring empires, the EIC hired traders and ships rather than building their own, which gave them flexibility and meant that they were not reliant on funding their own military. This attitude also enabled the EIC to continue to integrate with the different societies they were trading with, forging more trade networks and gaining alliances within the Mughal world. Each of the presidencies also extended loans and credit. This behaviour most famously is demonstrated in their coercing and making pacts with warring Mughal lords, resulting in the eventual claiming of the entirety of Bengal.

Each of the presidencies were very competitive with each other until 1790 when there were attempts to unite them. The reasons for this were numerous. First, those who joined the EIC in the early days tended to integrate into the society that hosted them. The resulting flood of trade was a benefit, but the British were uncomfortable with the way many EIC members went ‘native.’ Secondly, the finances of the company were in disarray and they were losing money. The reforms in the 1770s, saw the restructuring of the EIC on the English end. This was the creation of the Directorate Committee, a monumental organisation that controlled all trade and personnel going to India. They acted as oligarchs and finally tied the company back into the British parliament.

 

Ecology, environment, disease (Movement of biota and microbes) images

Eckhout, Albert, Mameluke with a basket of flowers, 1641. Albert Eckhout was the first European painter in Brazil. Eckhout was an official painter, hired by Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen, a prince of the House of Orange. These paintings tell us much about Brazil in the first half of the seventeenth century, and but also about the activities of the Dutch, and Dutch perceptions of the colony. The reason why they were there was to grow sugar – so it was a colony with slaves. The background of this painting shows the sugar cane plantation, but does not show the slaves that laboured there. This is typical of colonial painting, which tended to depict an idealised picture of the New World.
Eckhout, Albert, Mameluke with a basket of flowers, 1641.
Albert Eckhout was the first European painter in Brazil. Eckhout was an official painter, hired by Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen, a prince of the House of Orange. These paintings tell us much about Brazil in the first half of the seventeenth century, and but also about the activities of the Dutch, and Dutch perceptions of the colony. The reason why they were there was to grow sugar – so it was a colony with slaves. The background of this painting shows the sugar cane plantation, but does not show the slaves that laboured there. This is typical of colonial painting, which tended to depict an idealised picture of the New World.

 

Eckhout, Albert, Brazilian Fruit, circa 1610 – 1666.
Eckhout, Albert, Brazilian Fruit, circa 1610 – 1666.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glover, John, My Harvest Home, 1835. Historian Jeanette Hoon argues that this painting not only celebrates the Tasmanian harvest, and the painter, John Glover’s own settlement in Tasmania, but it also celebrates the absence of indigenous people in the colonial landscape. When Charles Darwin visited Tasmania two years after this Glover painted My Harvest Home, he expressed a similar sentiment, remarking that ‘all of the aborigines have been removed to an island in Bass’s Straits, so that Van Diemen’s Land enjoys the great advantage of being free from a native population’.
Glover, John, My Harvest Home, 1835. Historian Jeanette Hoon argues that this painting not only celebrates the Tasmanian harvest, and the painter, John Glover’s own settlement in Tasmania, but it also celebrates the absence of indigenous people in the colonial landscape. When Charles Darwin visited Tasmania two years after this Glover painted My Harvest Home, he expressed a similar sentiment, remarking that ‘all of the aborigines have been removed to an island in Bass’s Straits, so that Van Diemen’s Land enjoys the great advantage of being free from a native population’.

 

Anonymous Port Jackson artist, Native Going to Fish with a Torch and Flambeaux, circa 1788 – 1797.  Like many pictures painted by members of the First Fleet, this painting depicts indigenous people using the land and its resources. (Image originally published on the Natural History Museum website, http://www.nhm.ac.uk).
Anonymous Port Jackson artist, Native Going to Fish with a Torch and Flambeaux, circa 1788 – 1797.
Like many pictures painted by members of the First Fleet, this painting depicts indigenous people using the land and its resources. (Image originally published on the Natural History Museum website, http://www.nhm.ac.uk).

 

 

 

 

 

 

Disease:

René Rambert 1800-1900). From the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. Also found in Quétel, pg. 129.
René Rambert 1800-1900). From the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. Also found in Quétel, pg. 129.

 

The Population History of STockholm 1721-1986. From 'Zivilis or Hygaeia: urban public health and the epidemiologic transition', Gerry Kearns. The Rise and Fall of Great Cities.
The Population History of Stockholm 1721-1986. From ‘Zivilis or Hygaeia: urban public health and the epidemiologic transition’, Gerry Kearns. The Rise and Fall of Great Cities.

 

 

 

 

 

Cullerier, Précis iconographique des maladies vénériennes, Bibliothè que Nationale, Paris. 1861.
Cullerier, Précis iconographique des maladies vénériennes, Bibliothè que Nationale, Paris. 1861.

 

The cholera in Egypt: quarintine examination in Brindisi. From the Wellcome Library, London.
The cholera in Egypt: quarintine examination in Brindisi. From the Wellcome Library, London.

 

 

 

 

 

Grand-Jouan, L'Assiette au beurre, 9 May 1903. Bibliothèque Municipale de Caen.
Grand-Jouan, L’Assiette au beurre, 9 May 1903. Bibliothèque Municipale de Caen.

 

Countries Reporting Cholera in 2011. From - http://gamapserver.who.int/mapLibrary/app/searchResults.aspx
Countries Reporting Cholera in 2011. From – http://gamapserver.who.int/mapLibrary/app/searchResults.aspx

 

 

 

 

 

Cholera Transmission. Image found at http://carta.anthropogeny.org/moca/topics/cholera
Cholera Transmission. Image found at http://carta.anthropogeny.org/moca/topics/cholera

 

Girl who died of Cholera. "Blue stage of the spasmodic cholera. Sketch of a girl who died of cholera in Switzerland, November, 1831." Found at: http://ihm.nlm.nih.gov/luna/servlet/detail/NLMNLM~1~1~101434245~139722:-Girl-who-died-of-cholera-?sort=Title%2CSubject_MeSH_Term%2CCreator_Person%2CCreator_Organization&qvq=q:cholera;sort:Title,Subject_MeSH_Term,Creator_Person,Creator_Organization;lc:NLMNLM~1~1&mi=79&trs=92
Girl who died of Cholera.
“Blue stage of the spasmodic cholera. Sketch of a girl who died of cholera in Switzerland, November, 1831.” Found at: http://ihm.nlm.nih.gov

 

 

 

Ramses V and smallpox. Found at: The history of smallpox Clinics in Dermatology, Volume 24, Issue 3, Pages 152-157 Alasdair M. Geddes
Ramses V and smallpox. Found at: The history of smallpox
Clinics in Dermatology, Volume 24, Issue 3, Pages 152-157
Alasdair M. Geddes

 

Smallpox victim in Africa WHO photo by J. Breman
Smallpox victim in Africa WHO photo by J. Breman

 

 

 

 

Ecology, environment, disease (Movement of biota and microbes) primary sources

Lecture 1:

William Bligh, A Voyage to the South Sea … for the Purpose of Conveying the Breadfruit Tree to the West Indies (London, 1792): http://www.gutenberg.org/files/15411/15411-h/15411-h.htm

  • Chapter 1

By the Commissioners for Executing the Office of Lord High Admiral of Great Britain and Ireland, etc. 20th November 1787.

Extract from the Account of Dampier’s Voyage Round the World Performed in 1688.

  • Chapter 9

Wednesday 17 December 1788

Wednesday 14 December 1788

  • Chapter 10

Monday, 23 February 1789

Lecture 2:

Bains, Sir Edward, Baines’s Account of the Woollen Manufacture of England, first published, London, 1875, this edition, New York, 1970.

Trollope, Anthony, Australia and New Zealand, Vols. 1 and 2, first published, London, 1873, this edition, Adelaide (ebook), at

http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/t/trollope/anthony/index.html

Proceedings and Reports of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (various, digitised, 1831 – ) at http://baas.research.glam.ac.uk

Images:

Anonymous Port Jackson artist, Native Going to Fish with a Torch and Flambeaux, circa 1788 – 1797.

Glover, John, My Harvest Home, 1835.

Lecture 3

Dickens, Charles, Bleakhouse, chapter 32-35. Esther and the smallpox. http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/1023

From Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Letters of the Right Honourable Lady M–y W–y M–e: Written During her Travels in Europe, Asia and Africa. . . , vol. 1 (Aix: Anthony Henricy, 1796), pp. 167-69; letter 36, to Mrs. S. C. from Adrianople, n.d. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/montagu-smallpox.asp

Quétel, Claude, History of Syphilis, trans. Judith Braddock and Brian Pike (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1990). See in particular pages 125-130 and 66-71.

Lecture 4

Boccaccio, The Decameron, translated and edited by Richard Hooker, 1993. Found at: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/decameronintro.asp

The introduction

Selected material from the Jewish Internet History Sourcebook providing accounts of the plague: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/jewish/1348-jewsblackdeath.asp

James Gillkrest and William Fergusson, Letters on the Cholera Morbus, Nichols and Sons, Printers, Earl’s Court, Cranbourn Street Leicester Square, 1831. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/28147/28147-h/28147-h.htm

 

Ecology, environment, disease (Movement of biota and microbes) secondary sources

Lecture 1:

Lizzie Collingham, ‘Vindaloo: The Portuguese and the chilli pepper’ in Curry: A Tale of Cooks and Conquerors (London: Vintage, 2005), 46-80.

Felipe Fernandez-Armesto, ‘Challenging evolution: Food and ecological exchange’ in Food: A History (London: MacMillan, 2002), 185-213.

Reay Tannahill, ‘The Americas’ in Food in History (New York: Three Rivers Press, 1988), pp. 202-210, 216-223.

Lecture 2:

William Beinart and Lotte Hughes, ‘Sheep, pastures and demography in Australia’ in Environment and Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), pp. 93-111.

William Beinart and Lotte Hughes, ‘Environmental aspects of the Atlantic slave trade and Caribbean plantations’ in Environment and Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), pp. 22-40.

Peter Boomgaard, ‘Forest management and exploitation in colonial Java, 1677­-1897’, Forest and Conservation History, 36, January 1992, pp. 4-14.

Richard H. Grove, ‘Conclusion: The colonial state and the origins of western environmentalism’ in Green Imperialism: Colonial Expansion, Tropical Island Edens and the Origins of Environmentalism, 1600­-1860 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp. 474-486.

Lecture 3:

Crosby, Alfred, Ecological Imperialism. The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900 (Cambridge, CUP, 1986), pp. 196-216.

Geddes, Alasdair, ‘The History of Smallpox’, Clinics in Dermatology, 24 (3), May–June 2006, pp. 152–157.

Lange, Greg, ‘Smallpox epidemic ravages Native Americans on the northwest coast of North America in the 1770s’ (2003), at http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm?DisplayPage=output.cfm&File_Id=5100

Livi-Bacci, Massimo, ‘The Depopulation of Hispanic America after the Conquest’, Population and Development Review, 32.2 (June 2006), pp. 199- . Argues that smallpox and other diseases were not the sole cause of population decline but intersected with other factors.

McNeill, W. Plagues and Peoples, (Suffolk: Penguin Books, 1976), chapters 5 and 6, pp. 185-217.

McNeill, J. R., ‘Yellow Jack and geopolitics: environment, epidemics, and the struggles for empire in the American tropics, 1640-1830’, in Alf Hornborg, J. R. McNeill, and Juan Martinez-Alier, eds, Rethinking Environmental History: World-System History and Global Environmental Change. ( Lanham, MD, 2007), pp.199-220.

Quétel, Claude, History of Syphilis, trans. Judith Braddock and Brian Pike (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1990), pp. 9-73, 160-176.

Smith, F.B., Illness in colonial Australia (Melbourne: Australian Scholarly Publishing, 2011).

Lecture 4:

Hatcher, John, Plague, Population and the English Economy 1348-1530, (Basingstoke: MacMillan Press, 1977), 21-26.

Koch, Tom , Disease Maps (Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 2011), pp. 95-117. On cholera.

Morris, R. J., Cholera 1832: the social response to an epidemic (London: Croom Helm, 1976)

True Peters, Stephanie , Cholera: curse of the nineteenth century (New York : Benchmark Books, 2005 ), on pp. 1831-4 epidemic.

Bollet, Alfred, Plagues & poxes : the impact of human history on epidemic disease, 2nd ed. (New York : Demos, 2004), pp.17-31, 91-102.